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Afrikaans Phonology
Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.Contents1 Vowels1.1 Monophthongs1.1.1 The phonetic quality of the close vowels 1.1.2 The phonetic quality of the mid vowels 1.1.3 The phonetic quality of the open vowels 1.1.4 Other notes 1.1.5 Nasalized vowels1.2 Diphthongs1.2.1 /ɪø, ɪə, ʊə/ 1.2.2 Other diphthongs 1.2.3 Long diphthongs 1.2.4 'False' diphthongs2 Consonants2.1 Obstruents 2.2 Sonorants3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 Further readingVowels[edit]Monophthongs of Afrikaans on a vowel chart, from Wissing (2012:711)Afrikaans has an extensive vowel inventory consisting of 17 vowel phonemes, among which there are 10 monophthongs and 7 diphthongs. There are also 7 marginal monophthongs. Monophthongs[edit]
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Velar Nasal
The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is the sound of ng in English sing. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ŋ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is N. The IPA
IPA
symbol ⟨ŋ⟩ is similar to ⟨ɳ⟩, the symbol for the retroflex nasal, which has a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem, and to ⟨ɲ⟩, the symbol for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem. Both the IPA
IPA
symbol and the sound are commonly called 'eng' or 'engma'. As a phoneme, the velar nasal does not occur in many of the indigenous languages of the Americas or in a large number of European or Middle Eastern or Caucasian languages, but it is extremely common in Australian Aboriginal languages
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Mid Vowel
Paired vowels are: unrounded • roundedA mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned midway between an open vowel and a close vowel. Other names for a mid vowel are lowered close-mid vowel and raised open-mid vowel, though the former phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as low as open-mid; likewise, the latter phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as high as close-mid. Vowels[edit] The only mid vowel with a dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is the mid central vowel with ambiguous rounding [ə]. The IPA divides the vowel space into thirds, with the close-mid vowels such as [e] or [o] and the open-mid vowels such as [ɛ] or [ɔ] equidistant in formant space between open [a] or [ɒ] and close [i] or [u]
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Open Central Unrounded Vowel
The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages. While the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
officially has no dedicated letter for this sound between front [a] and back [ɑ], it is normally written ⟨a⟩. If precision is required, it can be specified by using diacritics, such as centralized ⟨ä⟩ or retracted ⟨a̠⟩, but this is not common. Acoustically, however, [a] is an extra-low central vowel.[2] It is more common to use plain [a] for an open central vowel and, if needed, [æ] (officially near-open front vowel) for an open front vowel. Alternatively, Sinologists may use the letter ⟨ᴀ⟩ (small capital A)
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Near-open Central Unrounded Vowel
The near-open central unrounded vowel is the most common type of the near-open central vowel, and is thus typically transcribed simply as ⟨ɐ⟩, which is the convention used in this article. If its unroundedness needs to be specified, it can be done by adding the less rounded diacritic to the near-open central vowel symbol: ⟨ɐ̜⟩, by combining the lowered diacritic with the open-mid central unrounded vowel symbol: ⟨ɜ̞⟩, by combining the centralized diacritic with the near-open front unrounded vowel symbol: ⟨æ̈⟩, or by combining the mid-centralized diacritic with either the open front unrounded vowel symbol: ⟨a̽⟩, or with the open back unrounded vowel: ⟨ɑ̽⟩
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The Hague Dialect
The Hague
The Hague
dialect (Standard Dutch: Haags, het Haagse dialect; The Hague dialect: Haags, et Haagse dialek) is a dialect of Dutch mostly spoken in The Hague
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Close-mid Front Rounded Vowel
The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. Acoustically, it is a close-mid front-central rounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents the sound is ⟨ø⟩, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, borrowed from Danish, Norwegian, and Faroese, which sometimes use the letter to represent the sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English. For the close-mid near-front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩ or ⟨y⟩, see near-close near-front rounded vowel
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Near-close Central Unrounded Vowel
The near-close central unrounded vowel, or near-high central unrounded vowel,[1] is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ⟨ɪ̈⟩ (centralized [ɪ]) and ⟨ɨ̞⟩ (lowered [ɨ]). Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɪ̠⟩ (retracted [ɪ]) and ⟨ɘ̝⟩ (raised [ɘ]), with the latter symbol being the least common. The X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
equivalents are, respectively, I, 1_o, I_- and @_r. In many British dictionaries, this vowel has been transcribed ⟨ɪ⟩, which captures its height; in the American tradition it is more often ⟨ɨ⟩, which captures its centrality, or ⟨ᵻ⟩,[2] which captures both. ⟨ᵻ⟩ is also used in a number of other publications, such as Accents of English by John C. Wells
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Breathy Voice
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape[1] which produces a sighing-like sound. A simple murmured phonation, [ɦ] (not actually a fricative consonant, as a literal reading of the IPA chart would suggest), can sometimes be heard as an allophone of English /h/ between vowels, such as in the word behind, for some speakers. In the context of the Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
like Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Hindi
Hindi
and comparative Indo-European studies, murmured consonants are often called voiced aspirated, as in the Hindi
Hindi
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
stops normally denoted bh, dh, ḍh, jh, and gh and the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European phoneme gʷʰ
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Boland, Western Cape
The Boland (Afrikaans for "top country" or "land above"[1]) is a region of the Western Cape
Western Cape
province of South Africa, situated to the northeast of Cape Town
Cape Town
in the middle and upper courses of the Berg and Breede Rivers, around the mountains of the central Cape Fold Belt. It is sometimes also referred to as the Cape Winelands because it is the primary region for the making of Western Cape
Western Cape
wine. Although the Boland does not have defined boundaries, its core lies around the towns of Stellenbosch, Paarl
Paarl
and Worcester. It may be understood to extend as far as Malmesbury, Tulbagh, Swellendam
Swellendam
and Somerset West. This is approximately the area included in the Cape Winelands District Municipality, which was formerly called the Boland District Municipality
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Open-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages
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Open Vowel
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth. Open vowels are sometimes also called low vowels (in American terminology [1]) in reference to the low position of the tongue. In the context of the phonology of any particular language, a low vowel can be any vowel that is more open than a mid vowel
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Labial Consonant
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. The two common labial articulations are bilabials, articulated using both lips, and labiodentals, articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English. A third labial articulation is dentolabials, articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth (the reverse of labiodental), normally only found in pathological speech. Generally precluded are linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals, though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants.[clarification needed] The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops, [m], [p], and [b], are bilabial and the fricatives, [f], and [v], are labiodental
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Near-open Vowel
A near-open vowel or a near-low vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages
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Alveolar Consonant
Alveolar consonants (/ælˈviːələr, ˌælviˈoʊlər/) are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue (the apical consonants), as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip (the "blade" of the tongue; called laminal consonants), as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often mistakenly called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. However, it is the rearmost point of contact that defines the place of articulation; this is where the oral cavity ends, and it is the resonant space of the oral cavity that gives consonants and vowels their characteristics. The International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants
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