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Afrikaans Language
Afrikaans
Afrikaans
(/ˌæfrɪˈkɑːns, ˌɑːfri-, -ˈkɑːnz/)[5][6] is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia
Namibia
and, to a lesser extent, Botswana
Botswana
and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular[7][8] of South Holland
South Holland
(Hollandic dialect)[9][10] spoken by the mainly Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century.[11] Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, and was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" (a term also used to refer collectively to the early Cape settlers) or "kitchen Dutch" (a derogatory term used to refer to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
in its earlier days)
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Windhoek
Windhoek
Windhoek
(/ˈvɪnt.hʊk/ VINT-huuk; Afrikaans: [ˈvəntɦuk]; German:  Windhuk (help·info); Khoekhoe: ǀAiǁgams; Otjiherero: Otjomuise) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia. It is located in central Namibia
Namibia
in the Khomas Highland plateau area, at around 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) above sea level, almost exactly at the country's geographical centre. The population of Windhoek
Windhoek
in 2011 was 325,858, growing continually due to an influx from all over Namibia. The town developed at the site of a permanent spring known to the indigenous pastoral communities. It developed rapidly after Jonker Afrikaner, Captain of the Orlam, settled here in 1840 and built a stone church for his community. In the decades following, multiple wars and armed hostilities resulted in the neglect and destruction of the new settlement
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Khoisan Languages
The Khoisan languages
Khoisan languages
(/ˈkɔɪsɑːn/; also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.[1][2] Khoisan languages
Khoisan languages
share click consonants and do not belong to other African language families. For much of the 20th century, they were thought to be genealogically related to each other, but this is no longer accepted. They are now held to comprise three distinct language families and two language isolates. All Khoisan languages
Khoisan languages
but two are indigenous to southern Africa
Africa
and belong to three language families. The Khoi family appears to have migrated to southern Africa
Africa
not long before the Bantu expansion.[3] Ethnically, their speakers are the Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
and the San (Bushmen)
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Creolisation
Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World.[1] As a result of colonization there was a mixture among people of Indigenous American, West African and European descent, which came to be understood as Creolization. Creolization is traditionally used to refer to the Caribbean; although not exclusive to the Caribbean
Caribbean
it can be further extended to represent other diasporas.[2] The mixing of people brought a cultural mixing which ultimately led to the formation of new identities
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Creole Language
A creole language,[1][2][3] or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language. While the concept is similar to that of a mixed or hybrid language, in the strict sense of the term, a mixed/hybrid language has derived from two or more languages, to such an extent that it is no longer closely related to the source languages. Creoles also differ from pidgins in that, while a pidgin has a highly simplified linguistic structure that develops as a means of establishing communication between two or more disparate language groups, a creole language is more complex, used for day-to-day purposes in a community, and acquired by children as a native language
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Morphology (linguistics)
In linguistics, morphology (/mɔːrˈfɒlədʒi/[1]) is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.[2][3] It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the classification of languages based on their use of words,[4] and lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary.[5] While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language
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Daughter Language
In historical linguistics, a daughter language is a language descended from another language through a process of genetic descent
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Hollandic Dialect
Hollandic or Hollandish (Dutch: Hollands [ˈɦɔlɑnts]) is, together with Brabantian, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language
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South Holland
South Holland
Holland
(Dutch: Zuid- Holland
Holland
[ˌzœyt ˈɦɔlɑnt] ( listen)) is a province in the midwest region of the Netherlands. It has a population of just over 3.6 million (as of 2015)[3] and a population density of about 1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi),[4] making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas. Situated on the North Sea
North Sea
in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland
Holland
covers an area of 3,403 km2 (1,314 sq mi), of which 585 km2 (226 sq mi) is water. It borders North Holland
North Holland
to the north, Utrecht and Gelderland
Gelderland
to the east, and North Brabant
North Brabant
and Zeeland
Zeeland
to the south
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Zimbabwe
Coordinates: 20°S 30°E / 20°S 30°E / -20; 30Republic of ZimbabweFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Unity, Freedom, Work"[1]Anthem:  "Blessed be the land of Zimbabwe"[2]Location of  Zimbabwe  (dark blue) in the African Union  (light blue)Capital and largest city Harare 17°50′S 31°3′E / 17.833°S 31.050°E / -17.833; 31.050Official languages16 languages[3]Chewa Chibarwe English Kalanga "Koisan" (presumably Tsoa) Nambya Ndau Ndebele Shangani Shona "sign language" Sotho Tonga Tswana Venda XhosaEthnic groups (2012)99.4% Black African (over 80% Shona; Ndebele are largest minority) 0.2% White African 0.4% others, including Coloured
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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