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African Americans
AFRICAN AMERICANS (also referred to as BLACK AMERICANS or AFRO-AMERICANS ) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term may also be used to include only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans . As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States (after White Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans ). Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West /Central African and European descent, and some also have Native American ancestry. According to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American
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African Immigration To The United States
AFRICAN IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES refers to immigrants to the United States who are or were nationals of modern African countries. The term African in the scope of this article refers to geographical or national origins rather than racial affiliation. Between the Immigration and Nationality
Nationality
Act of 1965 and 2007, an estimated total of 0.8 to 0.9 million Africans immigrated to the United States, accounting for roughly 3.3% of all total U.S. immigrants during this period. African immigrants in the United States come from almost all regions in Africa and do not constitute a homogeneous group. They include peoples from different national, linguistic, ethnic, racial, cultural and social backgrounds
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Afro-American Peoples Of The Americas
The AFRICAN DIASPORA IN THE AMERICAS is used to refer to people born in the Americas
Americas
with predominantly African ancestry
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Southern United States
The SOUTHERN UNITED STATES, commonly referred to as the AMERICAN SOUTH, DIXIE , or simply THE SOUTH, is a region of the United States of America . The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States, but the Deep South is fully located in the southeastern corner. Arizona
Arizona
and New Mexico
New Mexico
, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia
West Virginia
, which separated from Virginia
Virginia
in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the _de facto _ language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas
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African American Vernacular English
AFRICAN AMERICAN VERNACULAR ENGLISH (AAVE), also called AFRICAN AMERICAN ENGLISH (AAE), or less precisely BLACK ENGLISH, BLACK VERNACULAR, BLACK ENGLISH VERNACULAR (BEV), or BLACK VERNACULAR ENGLISH (BVE), is a variety (dialect , ethnolect and sociolect ) of American English
American English
, spoken by urban working-class and (largely bidialectal) middle-class African Americans
African Americans
. It is sometimes colloquially referred to as Ebonics , a term that is avoided by linguists because of its other meanings and connotations . It shares a large portion of its grammar and phonology with the rural dialects of the Southern United States
United States
, and especially older Southern American English
American English

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Louisiana Creole French
LOUISIANA CREOLE (kréyol la lwizyàn; French : créole louisianais) is a French-based creole language spoken by far fewer than 10,000 people, mostly in the state of Louisiana
Louisiana
. Due to the rapidly shrinking number of speakers, Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole is considered an endangered language . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Language shift, endangerment and revitalization * 3 Geographic distribution * 4 Grammar * 4.1 Personal pronouns * 5 Vocabulary * 5.1 Numbers * 5.2 Greetings * 5.3 The Lord\'s Prayer * 6 Sounds/Phonology * 6.1 Consonants * 6.2 Vowels * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ORIGINS Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole was spoken initially by those living in the French slave colony of Louisiana
Louisiana
. Many of the enslaved Africans came from Senegambia region of West Africa beginning in about 1719
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Gullah Language
GULLAH, also called SEA ISLAND CREOLE ENGLISH and GEECHEE, is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called "Geechees" within the community), an African-American
African-American
population living in coastal regions of the American states of South Carolina
South Carolina
, Georgia and northeast Florida
Florida
(including urban Charleston and Savannah). Closely related varieties are spoken in the Bahamas, namely Bahamian Creole . The Gullah language is based on different varieties of English and languages of West and Central Africa
Central Africa

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Protestantism
PROTESTANTISM is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church . It is one of the three major divisions of Christendom , together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy . The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical . With its origins in Germany , the modern movement is popularly considered to have begun in 1517 when Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences , which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers
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Roman Catholic
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome , known as the Pope , the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City , enclaved within Rome , Italy . The Catholic Church teaches that it is the one true church founded by Jesus Christ , that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles , and that the Pope is the successor to Saint Peter ; the Prince of the Apostles
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Jehovah's Witnesses
JEHOVAH\'S WITNESSES is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity
Christianity
. The group reports a worldwide membership of more than 8.3 million adherents involved in evangelism and an annual Memorial attendance of more than 20 million. Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
are directed by the Governing Body of Jehovah\'s Witnesses , a group of elders in Warwick , New York, which establishes all doctrines based on its interpretations of the Bible
Bible
. They prefer to use their own translation, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures
, although their literature occasionally quotes and cites other Bible translations
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African-American Muslims
AFRICAN-AMERICAN MUSLIMS, also colloquially known as BLACK MUSLIMS, are a religious minority among both the larger African-American and Muslim
Muslim
population of the United States. They are represented in various self-described Muslim
Muslim
sects such as the Nation of Islam
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Irreligion
IRRELIGION (adjective form: _non-religious_ or _irreligious_) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion . Irreligion may include some forms of theism , depending on the religious context it is defined against; for example, in 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism . According to the Pew Research Center 's 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, only 16% of the world's population is not affiliated with a religion, while 84% are affiliated. . According to their projections, the non-religious, though temporarily increasing, will ultimately decline significantly by 2050 because of lower reproductive rates and ageing
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Black Hispanic And Latino Americans
In the United States, a BLACK HISPANIC or AFRO-HISPANIC (Spanish: Afrohispano) is an American citizen or resident who is officially classified by the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
, Office of Management and Budget and other U.S. government agencies as a Black American of Hispanic
Hispanic
descent ." Hispanicity , which is independent of race, is the only ethnic category, as opposed to racial category, which is officially collated by the U.S. Census Bureau . The distinction made by government agencies for those within the population of any official race category, including "African American", is between those who report Hispanic
Hispanic
backgrounds and all others who do not
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Afro-Caribbean
AFRO-CARIBBEANS are Caribbean people who trace at least some of their ancestry to West Africa
West Africa
in the period since Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
's arrival in the region in 1492. Other names for this ethnicity include African- Caribbean
Caribbean
(especially preferred among the United Kingdom branch of the diaspora ), Afro-Antillean, or Afro-West Indian. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, European-led triangular trade brought enslaved West African people to work on Caribbean
Caribbean
islands, primarily on various sugar plantations and in domestic households. Many Afro-Caribbeans also have non-African ancestry, such as European, Asian, Middle Eastern, and Native American, as there has been extensive intermarriage and unions among the peoples over the centuries
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