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Aerobic Organism
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.[1] In contrast, an anaerobic organism (anaerobe) is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present.[2]Contents1 Types 2 Glucose 3 See also 4 ReferencesTypes[edit]Obligate aerobes need oxygen to grow
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Uterine Microbiome
The uterine microbiome is the commensal, nonpathogenic, bacteria, viruses, yeasts/fungi present in a healthy uterus, amniotic fluid and endometrium and the specific environment which they inhabit
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Anaerobic Digestion
Anaerobic digestion
Anaerobic digestion
is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.[1] The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste or to produce fuels. Much of the fermentation used industrially to produce food and drink products, as well as home fermentation, uses anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion
Anaerobic digestion
occurs naturally in some soils and in lake and oceanic basin sediments, where it is usually referred to as "anaerobic activity".[2][3] This is the source of marsh gas methane as discovered by Alessandro Volta
Alessandro Volta
in 1776.[4][5] The digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials. Insoluble organic polymers, such as carbohydrates, are broken down to soluble derivatives that become available for other bacteria
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Adenosine Diphosphate
Adenosine
Adenosine
diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells. ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to the 5 carbon atom of ribose. The diphosphate group of ADP is attached to the 5’ carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1’ carbon.[1] ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate group than does ADP. AMP contains one fewer phosphate group. Energy
Energy
transfer used by all living things is a result of dephosphorylation of ATP by enzymes known as ATPases
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Adenosine Triphosphate
Adenosine
Adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP
ATP
is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.[1] When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts to either the di- or monophosphates, respectively ADP and AMP. Other processes regenerate ATP
ATP
such that the human body recycles its own body weight equivalent in ATP
ATP
each day.[2] It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA. From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP
ATP
is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate, which indicates that it consists of three components, a nitrogenous base (adenine), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Extremophile
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.[1][2] In contrast, organisms that live in more moderate environments may be termed mesophiles or neutrophiles.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Classifications2.1 Terms3 In astrobiology 4 Examples 5 Industrial uses 6 DNA transfer 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksCharacteristics[edit] In the 1980s and 1990s, biologists found that microbial life has great flexibility for surviving in extreme environments—niches that are acidic or extraordinarily hot, for example—that would be completely inhospitable to complex organisms
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Thioglycollate Broth
Thioglycolate
Thioglycolate
broth is a multipurpose, enriched, differential medium used primarily to determine the oxygen requirements of microorganisms. Sodium thioglycolate in the medium consumes oxygen and permits the growth of obligate anaerobes.[1] This, combined with the diffusion of oxygen from the top of the broth, produces a range of oxygen concentrations in the medium along its depth. The oxygen concentration at a given level is indicated by a redox-sensitive dye such as resazurine that turns pink in the presence of oxygen. Thioglycolate
Thioglycolate
broth medium is recommended to isolate strict anaerobes should an anaerobic infection be suspected.[2]This allows the differentiation of obligate aerobes, obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, microaerophiles, and aerotolerant organisms
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Aerobic Digestion
Aerobic digestion is a process in sewage treatment designed to reduce the volume of sewage sludge and make it suitable[1] for subsequent use.[2] More recently technology has been developed that allows the treatment and reduction of other[3] organic waste, such as food, cardboard and horticultural waste. It is a bacterial process occurring in the presence of oxygen. Bacteria rapidly consume organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide, water and a range of lower molecular weight organic compounds. As there is no new supply of organic material from sewage, the activated sludge biota begin to die and are used as food by saprotrophic bacteria. This stage of the process is known as endogenous respiration and it is process that reduces the solid concentration in the sludge.Contents1 Process 2 Advantages 3 Disadvantages 4 ATADs 5 ReferencesProcess[edit] Aerobic digestion is typically used in an activated sludge treatment plant
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Fermentation (biochemistry)
Fermentation
Fermentation
is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen. The products are organic acids, gases, or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. In microorganisms, fermentation is the primary means of producing ATP by the degradation of organic nutrients anaerobically.[1] Humans have used fermentation to produce drinks and beverages since the Neolithic age. For example, fermentation is used for preservation in a process that produces lactic acid as found in such sour foods as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt (see fermentation in food processing), as well as for producing alcoholic beverages such as wine (see fermentation in winemaking) and beer
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Lysogenic Cycle
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other). Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this condition the bacterium continues to live and reproduce normally
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Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial
Antimicrobial
resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication previously used to treat them.[2][3][4] The term includes the more specific antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR), which applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics.[3] Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses, both of which may be more expensive or more toxic
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Dorland's Medical Reference Works
Dorland's is the brand name of a family of medical reference works (including dictionaries, spellers and word books, and spell-check software) in various media spanning printed books, CD-ROMs, and online content. The flagship products are Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary
Dictionary
(currently in its 32nd edition) and Dorland's Pocket Medical Dictionary
Dictionary
(currently in its 29th edition). The principal dictionary was first published in 1890 as the American Illustrated Medical Dictionary, including 770 pages. The pocket edition, called the American Pocket Medical Dictionary, was first published in 1898, consisting of just over 500 pages. With the death of the editor William Alexander Newman Dorland, AM, MD in 1956, the dictionaries were retitled to incorporate his name, which was how they had generally come to be known
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Pathogenic Bacteria
Pathogenic bacteria
Pathogenic bacteria
are bacteria that can cause disease.[1] This article deals with human pathogenic bacteria. Although most bacteria are harmless or often beneficial, some are pathogenic, with the number of species estimated as fewer than 100 that are seen to cause infectious diseases in humans.[2] By contrast, several thousand species exist in the human digestive system. One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, which kills about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa
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Medical Microbiology
Medical microbiology
Medical microbiology
, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion. A medical microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth.[1] Using this information, a treatment can be devised. Medical microbiologists often serve as consultants for physicians, providing identification of pathogens and suggesting treatment options
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Bacterial Infection
Pathogenic bacteria
Pathogenic bacteria
are bacteria that can cause disease.[1] This article deals with human pathogenic bacteria. Although most bacteria are harmless or often beneficial, some are pathogenic, with the number of species estimated as fewer than 100 that are seen to cause infectious diseases in humans.[2] By contrast, several thousand species exist in the human digestive system. One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, which kills about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa
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