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Adnexa Of Uterus
The uterine appendages (or adnexa of uterus) are the structures most closely related structurally and functionally to the uterus.Contents1 Terminology 2 Clinical significance 3 Additional images 4 References 5 See alsoTerminology[edit] They can be defined in slightly different ways:Some sources define the adnexa as the fallopian tubes and ovaries.[1] Others include the supporting tissues".[2] Another source defines the appendages as the "regions of the true pelvis posterior to the broad ligaments".[3] One dictionary includes the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and ligaments (without specifying precisely which ligaments are included).[4]Clinical significance[edit] The term "adnexitis" is sometimes used to describe an inflammation of the uterine appendages (adnexa).[5] In this context, it replaces the terms oophoritis and salpingitis. The term adnexal mass is sometimes used when the location of a uterine mass is not yet more precisely known. 63% of ectopic pr
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Germinal Epithelium (female)
The ovarian surface epithelium, also called the germinal epithelium of Waldeyer,[1] is a layer of simple squamous-to-cuboidal epithelial cells covering the ovary.[2] The term germinal epithelium is a misnomer as it does not give rise to primary follicles.[3]Contents1 Composition 2 Diseases 3 References 4 External linksComposition[edit] These cells are derived from the mesoderm during embryonic development and are closely related to the mesothelium of the peritoneum
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Corpus Albicans
The corpus albicans ( Latin
Latin
for "whitening body"; also known as atretic corpus luteum, corpus candicans, or simply as albicans) is the regressed form of the corpus luteum. As the corpus luteum is being broken down by macrophages, fibroblasts lay down type I collagen, forming the corpus albicans. This process is called "luteolysis". The remains of the corpus albicans may persist as a scar on the surface of the ovary. Background[edit] During the first few hours after expulsion of the ovum from the follicle, the remaining granulosa and theca interna cells change rapidly into lutein cells. They enlarge in diameter two or more times and become filled with lipid inclusions that give them a yellowish appearance. This process is called luteinization, and the total mass of cells together is called the corpus luteum
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Theca Of Follicle
The theca folliculi comprise a layer of the ovarian follicles. They appear as the follicles become secondary follicles. The theca are divided into two layers, the theca interna and the theca externa. Theca
Theca
cells are a group of endocrine cells in the ovary made up of connective tissue surrounding the follicle that has many diverse functions during folliculogenesis.[1] These roles include synthesizing androgens, providing signal transduction between granulosa cells and oocytes during development by the establishment of a vascular system, providing nutrients, and providing structure and support to the follicle as it matures.[1] The theca cells are responsible for the production of androstenedione, and indirectly the production of 17β estradiol, also called E2, by supplying the neighboring granulosa cells with androstenedione that with the help of the enzyme aromatase can be used as a substrate for this type of estradiol
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Theca Externa
The theca externa is the outer layer of the theca folliculi. It is derived from connective tissue, the cells resembling fibroblasts, and contains abundant collagen.[1] During ovulation, the surge in luteinizing hormone increases cAMP which increases progesterone and PGF2α production. The PGF2α induces the contraction of the smooth muscle cells of the theca externa, increasing intrafollicular pressure. This aids in rupture of the mature oocyte, or immature oocyte at the germinal vesicle stage in the canine, along with plasmin and collagenase degradation of the follicle wall. References[edit]^ Sadler, T. W. (2008). Langmans embryologi (2. ed.). Copenhagen: Munksgaard Danmark. p. 33
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Theca Interna
Theca interna cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH) to produce androstenedione, which via a few steps, gives the granulosa the precursor for estrogen manufacturing. After rupture of the mature ovarian follicle, the theca interna cells differentiate into the theca lutein cells of the corpus luteum. Theca lutein cells secrete androgens[1] and progesterone. Theca lutein cells are also known as small luteal cells. [1] See also[edit]theca folliculiReferences[edit]^ a b The IUPS Physiome Project --> Female Reproductive System - Cells Archived December 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
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Follicular Antrum
The follicular antrum is the portion of an ovarian follicle filled with follicular fluid. Appearance of the follicular antrum during follicular maturation is the first sign that a follicle has reached the next stage of maturation
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Follicular Fluid
Follicular fluid
Follicular fluid
is a liquid which fills the follicular antrum and surrounds the ovum in an ovarian follicle
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Corona Radiata (embryology)
The corona radiata is the innermost layer of the cells of the cumulus oophorus and is directly adjacent to the zona pellucida, the outer protective glycoprotein layer of the ovum.[1] Its main purpose in many animals is to supply vital proteins to the cell.[citation needed] It is formed by follicle cells adhering to the oocyte before it leaves the ovarian follicle, and originates from the squamous granulosa cells present at the primordial stage of follicular development. The corona radiata is formed when the granulosa cells enlarge and become cuboidal, which occurs during the transition from the primordial to primary stage. These cuboidal granulosa cells, also known as the granulosa radiata, form more layers throughout the maturation process, and remain attached to the zona pellucida after the ovulation of the Graafian follicle
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Zona Pellucida
The zona pellucida (plural zonae pellucidae, also egg coat or pellucid zone) is a glycoprotein layer surrounding the plasma membrane of mammalian oocytes. It is a vital constitutive part of the oocyte. The zona pellucida first appears in unilaminar primary oocytes. It is secreted by both the oocyte and the ovarian follicles. The zona pellucida is surrounded by the cumulus oophorus. The cumulus is composed of cells that care for the egg when it is emitted from the ovary.[1] This structure binds spermatozoa, and is required to initiate the acrosome reaction. In the mouse (the best characterised mammalian system), the zona glycoprotein, ZP3, is responsible for sperm binding, adhering to proteins on the sperm plasma membrane (GalT). ZP3
ZP3
is then involved in the induction of the acrosome reaction, whereby a spermatozoon releases the contents of the acrosomal vesicle
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Membrana Granulosa
The larger ovarian follicles consist of an external fibrovascular coat, connected with the surrounding stroma of the ovary by a network of bloodvessels; and an internal coat, which consists of several layers of nucleated cells, called the membrana granulosa. It contains numerous granulosa cells. At one part of the mature follicle the cells of the membrana granulosa are collected into a mass which projects into the cavity of the follicle
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Perivitelline Space
The perivitelline space is the space between the zona pellucida and the cell membrane of an oocyte or fertilized ovum.[1] In the slow block to polyspermy, the cortical granules released from the ovum are deposited in the perivitelline space. Polysaccharides released in the granules cause the space to swell, pushing the zona pellucida farther from the oocyte.[1] The hydrolytic enzymes released by the granules cause the zona reaction, which removes the ZP3
ZP3
ligands from the zona pellucida.[1] Clinical importance[edit] Clinically the perivitelline space is relevant because it is where the polar body lodges after meiosis. References[edit]^ a b c Bruce M. Carlson (2004). Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby
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Corpus Hemorrhagicum
The corpus hemorrhagicum ("bleeding corpus luteum")[1] is a temporary structure formed immediately after ovulation from the ovarian follicle as it collapses and is filled with blood that quickly clots.[2] After the trauma heals, the subsequent structure is called the corpus luteum (which in turn becomes the corpus albicans before degenerating.)Sometimes during ovulation small blood vessels rupture, and the cavity of the ruptured follicle fills with a blood clot, a corpus hemorrhagicum.[3] References[edit]^ J. McSweeney, M.D.†, Daniel; O. Wood, M.D.‡, Frank. "Acute Abdominal Conditions Following Ovulation
Ovulation
and Its Sequelae — NEJM". NEJM. Retrieved 4 July 2015.  ^ Marieb, Elaine (2013). Anatomy & physiology. Benjamin-Cummings. p. 915. ISBN 9780321887603.  ^ Husvéth, Ferenc (2011). "PHYSIOLOGICAL and REPRODUCTIONAL ASPECTS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION". Digital Textbook Library
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Cumulus Oophorus
The cumulus oophorus ( Latin
Latin
cumulus=heap, Greek oo=egg + phor=carrier; Latinized ending "-us"), also called discus proligerus, is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. In the antral follicle, it may be regarded as an extension of the membrana granulosa
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