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Adipose Tissue
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.[1] In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages. Adipose tissue
Adipose tissue
is derived from preadipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulates the body. Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ,[2] as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα. The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which generates body heat. The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene
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Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Doctor Who
is a British science-fiction television programme produced by the BBC
BBC
since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called "the Doctor", an extraterrestrial being from the planet Gallifrey. The Doctor explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, which was a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes, while working to save civilisations and help people in need. The show is a significant part of British popular culture,[1][2] and elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series.[3] The programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989
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Epididymis
The epididymis (/ɛpɪˈdɪdɪmɪs/; plural: epididymides /ɛpɪdɪˈdɪmədiːz/ or /ɛpɪˈdɪdəmɪdiːz/) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system. It is present in all male reptiles, birds, and mammals. It is a single, narrow, tightly-coiled tube (in adult humans, six to seven meters in length)[1] connecting the efferent ducts from the rear of each testicle to its vas deferens.Contents1 Structure1.1 Histology1.1.1 Stereocilia1.2 Development2 Function2.1 Role in storage of sperm and ejaculant3 Clinical significance3.1 Inflammation 3.2 Surgical removal4 Popular culture4.1 Ghostbusters II5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksStructure[edit] The epididymis can be divided into three main regions:The head (Latin: Caput)
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Organ (anatomy)
Organs are collections of tissues with a similar function. Plant
Plant
and animal life relies on many organs that coexist in organ systems.[2] Organs are composed of main tissue, parenchyma, and "sporadic" tissues, stroma. The main tissue is that which is unique for the specific organ, such as the myocardium, the main tissue of the heart, while sporadic tissues include the nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems. Organs exist in all organisms. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria the functional analogue of an organ is known as an organelle
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Yellow Bone Marrow
Bone
Bone
marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.[2] In birds and mammals, bone marrow is the primary site of new blood cell production or hematopoiesis.[3] It is composed of hematopoietic cells, marrow adipose tissue, and supportive stromal cells. On average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans; in an adult having 65 kilograms of mass (143 lb), bone marrow typically accounts for approximately 2.6 kilograms (5.7 lb).[4] Human marrow produces approximately 500 billion blood cells per day, which join the systemic circulation via permeable vasculature sinusoids within the medullary cavity.[5] All types of hematopoietic cells, including both myeloid and lymphoid lineages, are created in bone marrow; however, lymphoid cells must migrate to other lymphoid organs (e.g
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Muscular System
The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates blood throughout the body. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles (such as the cardiac muscle) can be completely autonomous. Together with the skeletal system it forms the musculoskeletal system, which is responsible for movement of the human body.Contents1 Muscles1.1 Skeletal muscle 1.2 Cardiac muscle 1.3 Smooth muscle2 Physiology2.1 Contraction 2.2 Aerobic and anaerobic muscle activity3 Clinical significance 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMuscles Main article: Muscle There are three distinct types of muscles: skeletal muscles, cardiac or heart muscles, and smooth (non-striated) muscles
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Blood Vessel
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.[1] There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. The word vascular, meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin
Latin
vas, meaning vessel. A few structures (such as cartilage and the lens of the eye) do not contain blood vessels and are labeled.Contents1 Structure1.1 Types2 Function2.1 Vessel size 2.2 Blood
Blood
flow3 Disease 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins:The inner layer, Tunica intima, is the thinnest layer
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Abdominal Cavity
The abdominal cavity is a large body cavity in humans[1] and many other animals that contains many organs. It is a part of the abdominopelvic cavity.[2] It is located below the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. Its dome-shaped roof is the thoracic diaphragm, a thin sheet of muscle under the lungs, and its floor is the pelvic inlet, opening into the pelvis.Contents1 Structure1.1 Organs 1.2 Peritoneum 1.3 Mesentery 1.4 Omenta2 Clinical significance2.1 Ascites 2.2 Inflammation3 See also 4 References 5 External linksStructure[edit]The abdominal cavity is labeled 3 in this image, and together with the pelvic cavity (4) it makes up the abdominopelvic cavity 6.Organs[edit] Organs of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, large intestine, and adrenal glands.[1] Peritoneum[edit] Main article: Peritoneum The abdominal cavity is lined with a protective membrane termed the peritoneum
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Uterus
The uterus (from Latin
Latin
"uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals. In the human, the lower end of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the upper end, the fundus, is connected to the fallopian tubes. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops during gestation. In the human embryo, the uterus develops from the paramesonephric ducts which fuse into the single organ known as a simplex uterus
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Ovary
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilised by a sperm. There is an ovary (from Latin
Latin
ovarium, meaning egg/nut) found on the left and the right side of the body. The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. The ovary progresses through many stages beginning in the prenatal period through menopause
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Testes
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans. It is homologous to the female ovary. The functions of the testes are to produce both sperm and androgens, primarily testosterone
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Adipose Gene
WDTC1 ("Adipose") is a gene associated with obesity.[1][2][3] Model organisms[edit] Model organisms have been used in the study of WDTC1 function
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Dorsum (biology)
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood.[1] That is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the centre.[2] For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other (invertebrate) organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines
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Abdomen
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The region occupied by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; it follows the thorax or cephalothorax.[1][2] The abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim. The pelvic brim stretches from the lumbosacral joint (the intervertebral disc between L5 and S1) to the pubic symphysis and is the edge of the pelvic inlet. The space above this inlet and under the thoracic diaphragm is termed the abdominal cavity
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Intestines
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces. The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion.[1] In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus, by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes)
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Stomach
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication (chewing). In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine. It secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion
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