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Adhesion
Note 1: Adhesion
Adhesion
requires energy that can come from chemical and/or physical linkages, the latter being reversible when enough energy is applied. Note 2: In biology, adhesion reflects the behavior of cells shortly after contact to the surface. Note 3: In surgery, adhesion is used when two tissues fuse unexpectedly.[1] Adhesion
Adhesion
is the tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another (cohesion refers to the tendency of similar or identical particles/surfaces to cling to one another). The forces that cause adhesion and cohesion can be divided into several types. The intermolecular forces responsible for the function of various kinds of stickers and sticky tape fall into the categories of chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, and diffusive adhesion
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Decal
A decal (/ˈdiːkæl/, /dɪˈkæl/, /ˈdɛkəl/, /ˈdeɪkæl/) or transfer is a plastic, cloth, paper or ceramic substrate that has printed on it a pattern or image that can be moved to another surface upon contact, usually with the aid of heat or water. The word is short for decalcomania, which is the English version of the French word décalcomanie. The technique was invented by Simon François Ravenet, an engraver from France who later moved to England and perfected the process he called "décalquer" (which means to copy by tracing); it became widespread during the decal craze of the late 19th century.Contents1 Properties 2 Production process 3 Applications 4 Notes on printing 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksProperties[edit] A decal is composed of the following layers from top to bottom:This section may require cleanup to meet's quality standards. The specific problem is: unclear descriptions of layer order and meaning of facestock, labelstock, and backing material
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Polar Moment
The 2nd moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia, or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area which reflects how its points are distributed with regard to an arbitrary axis. The second moment of area is typically denoted with either an I displaystyle I for an axis that lies in the plane or with a J displaystyle J for an axis perpendicular to the plane. In both cases, it is calculated with a multiple integral over the object in question. Its dimension is L (length) to the fourth power
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Van Der Waals Force
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules. Unlike ionic or covalent bonds, these attractions are not a result of any chemical electronic bond, and they are comparatively weak and more susceptible to being perturbed. Van der Waals forces quickly vanish at longer distances between interacting molecules. Van der Waals forces play a fundamental role in fields as diverse as supramolecular chemistry, structural biology, polymer science, nanotechnology, surface science, and condensed matter physics. Van der Waals forces also define many properties of organic compounds and molecular solids, including their solubility in polar and non-polar media. If no other forces are present, the point at which the force becomes repulsive rather than attractive as two atoms near one another is called the van der Waals contact distance
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London Forces
London dispersion forces (LDF, also known as dispersion forces, London forces, instantaneous dipole–induced dipole forces, or loosely van der Waals forces) are a type of force acting between atoms and molecules.[1] They are part of the van der Waals forces. The LDF is named after the German-American physicist Fritz London. The LDF is a weak intermolecular force arising from quantum-induced instantaneous polarization multipoles in molecules. They can therefore act between molecules without permanent multipole moments.Contents1 Introduction 2 Quantum mechanical theory of dispersion forces 3 Relative magnitude 4 ReferencesIntroduction[edit] London forces are exhibited by non-polar molecules because of the presence of correlated movements of the electrons in interacting molecules
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Hibiscus
679 speciesSynonyms[1]Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi Bombycodendron Hassk. Brockmania W.Fitzg. Pariti Adans. Wilhelminia Hochr.Hibiscus[2][3] is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. The genus is quite large, comprising several hundred species that are native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are renowned for their large, showy flowers and those species are commonly known simply as "hibiscus", or less widely known as rose mallow. The genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees
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London Dispersion
London dispersion forces (LDF, also known as dispersion forces, London forces, instantaneous dipole–induced dipole forces, or loosely van der Waals forces) are a type of force acting between atoms and molecules.[1] They are part of the van der Waals forces. The LDF is named after the German-American physicist Fritz London. The LDF is a weak intermolecular force arising from quantum-induced instantaneous polarization multipoles in molecules. They can therefore act between molecules without permanent multipole moments.Contents1 Introduction 2 Quantum mechanical theory of dispersion forces 3 Relative magnitude 4 ReferencesIntroduction[edit] London forces are exhibited by non-polar molecules because of the presence of correlated movements of the electrons in interacting molecules
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Polarity (physics)
In physics, polarity is an attribute with two possible values. Polarity is a basic feature of the universe.An electric charge can have either positive or negative polarity. A voltage or potential difference between two points of an electric circuit has a polarity, describing which of the two points has the higher electric potential. A magnet has a polarity, in that it has two poles described as "north" and "south" pole. More generally, the polarity of an electric or magnetic field can be viewed as the sign of the vectors describing the field. The spin of an entity in quantum mechanics can have a polarity – parallel or anti-parallel to a given direction.See also[edit]Polarization (other) Chemical polarityThis physics-related article is a stub
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Fritz London
Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900 – March 30, 1954) was a Jewish-German physicist and professor at Duke University. His fundamental contributions to the theories of chemical bonding and of intermolecular forces (London dispersion forces) are today considered classic and are discussed in standard textbooks of physical chemistry. With his brother Heinz London, he made a significant contribution to understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors with the London equations
London equations
and was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry on five separate occasions.Contents1 Biography 2 Academic achievements 3 Fritz London
Fritz London
Memorial Lectures and Prize 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] London was born in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) as the son of Franz London (1863-1917). Being a Jew, London lost his position at the University of Berlin after Hitler's Nazi Party passed the 1933 racial laws
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London Dispersion Force
London dispersion forces (LDF, also known as dispersion forces, London forces, instantaneous dipole–induced dipole forces, or loosely van der Waals forces) are a type of force acting between atoms and molecules.[1] They are part of the van der Waals forces. The LDF is named after the German-American physicist Fritz London. The LDF is a weak intermolecular force arising from quantum-induced instantaneous polarization multipoles in molecules. They can therefore act between molecules without permanent multipole moments.Contents1 Introduction 2 Quantum mechanical theory of dispersion forces 3 Relative magnitude 4 ReferencesIntroduction[edit] London forces are exhibited by non-polar molecules because of the presence of correlated movements of the electrons in interacting molecules
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Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.[2] Classical physics
Classical physics
(the physics existing before quantum mechanics) is a set of fundamental theories which describes nature at ordinary (macroscopic) scale
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Multipole
A multipole expansion is a mathematical series representing a function that depends on angles—usually the two angles on a sphere. These series are useful because they can often be truncated, meaning that only the first few terms need to be retained for a good approximation to the original function. The function being expanded may be complex in general. Multipole expansions are very frequently used in the study of electromagnetic and gravitational fields, where the fields at distant points are given in terms of sources in a small region. The multipole expansion with angles is often combined with an expansion in radius. Such a combination gives an expansion describing a function throughout three-dimensional space.[1] The multipole expansion is expressed as a sum of terms with progressively finer angular features. For example, the initial term—called the zeroth, or monopole, moment—is a constant, independent of angle
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Hydrogen Bond
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
bonds can occur between molecules (intermolecular) or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecular).[1] Depending on the nature of the donor and acceptor atoms which constitute the bond, their geometry, and environment, the energy of a hydrogen bond can vary between 1 and 40 kcal/mol.[2] This makes them somewhat stronger than a van der Waals interaction, and weaker than fully covalent or ionic bonds
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Electrostatic Interaction
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with study of the electric charges at rest. Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word for amber, ήλεκτρον, or electron, was the source of the word 'electricity'. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb's law
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Harmonic Oscillator
In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F, proportional to the displacement, x: F → = − k x → displaystyle vec F =-k vec x , where k is a positive constant. If F is the only force acting on the system, the system is called a simple harmonic oscillator, and it undergoes simple harmonic motion: sinusoidal oscillations about the equilibrium point, with a constant amplitude and a constant frequency (which does not depend on the amplitude). If a frictional force (damping) proportional to the velocity is also present, the harmonic oscillator is described as a damped oscillator. Depending on the friction coefficient, the system can:Oscillate with a frequency lower than in the undamped case, and an amplitude decreasing with time (underdamped oscill
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Zero-point Energy
Zero-point energy
Zero-point energy
(ZPE) or ground state energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have. Unlike in classical mechanics, quantum systems constantly fluctuate in their lowest energy state due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.[1] As well as atoms and molecules, the empty space of the vacuum has these properties. According to quantum field theory the universe can be thought of not as isolated particles but continuous fluctuating fields: matter fields, whose quanta are fermions (i.e. leptons and quarks), and force fields, whose quanta are bosons (e.g. photons and gluons). All these fields have zero-point energy.[2] These fluctuating zero-point fields lead to a kind of reintroduction of an aether in physics,[1][3] since some systems can detect the existence of this energy
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