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Adena Culture
The ADENA CULTURE was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period . The Adena culture
Adena culture
refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio
Ohio
, Indiana
Indiana
, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, West Virginia
West Virginia
, Kentucky
Kentucky
, New York , Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Maryland
Maryland

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Pre-columbian
The PRE-COLUMBIAN ERA incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas
Americas
before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period . While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" literally refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is usually used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas
Americas
cultures until those cultures were vanquished, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans, even if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing. For this reason the alternative terms of PRECONTACT AMERICAS, PRE-COLONIAL AMERICAS or PREHISTORIC AMERICAS are also in use. In areas of Latin America
Latin America
the term usually used is PRE-HISPANIC. Similarly, the Norse colonization of North America is generally not treated as "pre-Columbian", despite the fact that it predates Columbus by several centuries
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Native Americans In The United States
In the United States
United States
of America , NATIVE AMERICANS (also known as AMERICAN INDIANS, INDIGENOUS AMERICANS or simply INDIANS; see §Terminology differences ) are people who belong to one of the over 500 distinct Native American tribes
Native American tribes
that survive intact today as partially sovereign nations within the country's modern boundaries. These tribes and bands are descended from the pre-Columbian indigenous population of North America
North America

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Ohio
OHIO /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen ) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States
United States
. Ohio
Ohio
is the 34th largest by area , the 7th most populous , and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States
United States
. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus . The state takes its name from the Ohio River
Ohio River
. The name originated from the Iroquois
Iroquois
word _ohi-yo'_, meaning "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance
Northwest Ordinance
) on March 1, 1803. Ohio
Ohio
is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye
Ohio buckeye
trees , and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes". The government of Ohio
Ohio
is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor ; the legislative branch, which comprises the Ohio General Assembly ; and the judicial branch, which is led by the state Supreme Court . Ohio
Ohio
occupies 16 seats in the United States
United States
House of Representatives . Ohio
Ohio
is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections
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Indiana
INDIANA /ɪndiˈænə/ ( listen ) is a U.S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States . Its capital and largest city is Indianapolis . Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U.S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, and Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States; the state's northernmost tier was settled primarily by people from New England and New York, Central Indiana by migrants from the Mid-Atlantic states and from adjacent Ohio, and Southern Indiana by settlers from the Southern states, particularly Kentucky and Tennessee. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $298 billion in 2012
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Wisconsin
WISCONSIN (/wᵻˈskɒnsᵻn/ ( listen )) is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States
United States
, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota
Minnesota
to the west, Iowa
Iowa
to the southwest, Illinois
Illinois
to the south, Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior
Lake Superior
to the north. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous . The state capital is Madison , and its largest city is Milwaukee
Milwaukee
, which is located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties . Wisconsin's geography is diverse, with the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupying the western part of the state and lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan
Michigan
. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
is second to Michigan
Michigan
in the length of its Great Lakes coastline
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West Virginia
WEST VIRGINIA /ˌwɛst vərˈdʒɪnjə/ ( listen ) is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States . It is bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the north (and, slightly, east), and Maryland to the northeast. West Virginia is the 10th smallest by area , is ranked 38th in population , and has the second lowest household income of the 50 United States . The capital and largest city is Charleston . West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia , although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, and was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts , and was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War (the other being Nevada )
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Kentucky
KENTUCKY (/kənˈtʌki/ (_ listen ), kən-TUCK-ee_ ), officially the COMMONWEALTH OF KENTUCKY, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States . Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth (the others being Virginia , Pennsylvania , and Massachusetts ). Originally a part of Virginia , in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States . Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities, Louisville and Lexington . It is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park , the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States , and the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River
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New York (state)
NEW YORK is a state in the northeastern United States
United States
. New York
New York
was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States
United States
. With an estimated 19.8 million residents in 2015, it is the fourth most populous state in the United States. To differentiate from its city with the same name, it is sometimes called NEW YORK STATE. The state's largest city, New York City
New York City
, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area , and nearly 40% lives on Long Island
Long Island
. The state and city were both named for the 17th-century Duke of York
Duke of York
, future King James II of England . With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City
New York City
is the most populous city in the United States
United States
and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States
United States
. The New York
New York
Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world
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Pennsylvania
PENNSYLVANIA /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/ (_ listen ) (Pennsylvania German : Pennsylvaani_ or _Pennsilfaani_), officially the COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States
United States
. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth borders Delaware
Delaware
to the southeast, Maryland
Maryland
to the south, West Virginia
West Virginia
to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and the Canadian province of Ontario
Ontario
to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey
New Jersey
to the east. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is the 33rd-largest , the 6th-most populous , and the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 United States
United States
. The state's five most populous cities are Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(1,560,297), Pittsburgh (305,801), Allentown (118,577), Erie
Erie
(100,671), and Reading (89,893). The state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg . Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has 140 miles (225 km) of shoreline along Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and the Delaware
Delaware
Estuary
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Maryland
Motto(s) : Fatti maschii, parole femine (Literal: Manly Deeds, Womanly Words) The Latin text encircling the seal: _Scuto bonæ voluntatis tuæ coronasti nos_ (With favor Wilt Thou Compass Us as with a Shield) Psalm 5:12 State song(s) : " Maryland, My Maryland " _ OFFICIAL LANGUAGE None (English, de facto_) DEMONYM Marylander CAPITAL Annapolis
Annapolis
LARGEST CITY Baltimore
Baltimore
LARGEST METRO Baltimore- Washington Metro Area AREA Ranked 42nd • TOTAL 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km2) • WIDTH 101 miles (163 km) • LENGTH 249 miles (400 km) • % WATER 21 • LATITUDE 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N • LONGITUDE 75° 03′ W to 79° 29′ W POPULATION Ranked 19th • TOTAL 6,016,447 (2016 est.) • DENSITY 596/sq mi (230/km2) Ranked 5th • MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME $73,594 (3rd) ELEVATION • HIGHEST POINT Hoye-Crest 3,360 ft (1024 m) • MEAN 350 ft (110 m) • LOWEST POINT Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
sea level BEFORE STATEHOOD Province of Maryland ADMISSION TO UNION April 28, 1788 (7th) GOVERNOR Larry Hogan (R ) LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR Boyd Rutherford (R ) LEGISLATURE General Assembly • UPPER HOUSE Senate • LOWER HOUSE House of Delegates U.S
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Hopewell Culture
The HOPEWELL TRADITION (also called the HOPEWELL CULTURE) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States
United States
from 200 BC to 500 AD , in the Middle Woodland
Middle Woodland
period . The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Southeastern United States
United States
as far south as the Crystal River Indian Mounds into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
in the north. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways. The Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over what is now the United States. Most of the items traded were exotic materials and were received by people living in the major trading and manufacturing areas. These people then converted the materials into products and exported them through local and regional exchange networks. The objects created by the Hopewell exchange system spread far and wide and have been seen in many burials outside the Midwest
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Chillicothe, Ohio
CHILLICOTHE (/ˌtʃɪlɪˈkɒθi/ CHIL-i-KOTH-ee ) is a city in and the county seat of Ross County , Ohio
Ohio
, United States
United States
. The population was 21,901 at the 2010 census . It is the only city in Ross County and the center of the Chillicothe Micropolitan Statistical Area (as defined by the United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau in 2003). Chillicothe is a designated Tree City
City
USA by the National Arbor Day Foundation . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 3.1 2010 census * 3.2 2000 census * 4 Government * 4.1 Public officials * 4.2 Other elected officials * 5 Public services * 5.1 Parks and recreation * 5.2 Education * 6 Culture * 6.1 Majestic Theatre * 6.2 Fairs and festivals * 6.3 Athletic events * 7 Notable people * 7.1 Athletes * 7.2 Educators * 7.3 Inventors * 7.4 Military * 7.5 Ohio
Ohio
founders * 8 Sister city * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORY First capital sign at edge of the city Chillicothe was the first and third capital of Ohio
Ohio
and is located in southern Ohio
Ohio
along the Scioto River
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Earthworks (archaeology)
In archaeology , EARTHWORKS are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features , or they can show features beneath the surface. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Size * 3 Detection * 4 Interpretation * 5 Examples * 6 Gallery * 7 Notes * 8 References TYPESEarthworks of interest to archaeologists include hill forts , henges , mounds , platform mounds , effigy mounds , enclosures , long barrows , tumuli , ridge and furrow , mottes , round barrows , and other tombs . * Hill forts , a type of fort made out of mostly earth and other natural materials including sand, straw, and water, were built as early as the late Stone Age and were built more frequently during the Bronze Age and Iron Age as a means of protection. See also Oppidum . * Henge earthworks are those that consist of a flat area of earth in a circular shape that are encircled by a ditch, or several circular ditches, with a bank on the outside of the ditch built with the earth from inside the ditch. They are believed to have been used as monuments for spiritual ritual ceremonies. * A mound is a substantial manmade pile of earth or rocks that was frequently created to mark burial sites * Platform mounds are pyramid or rectangular-shaped mounds that are used to hold a building or temple on top
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Mound
A MOUND is a heaped pile of earth , gravel , sand , rocks , or debris . Most commonly, mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains , particularly if they appear artificial. A mound may be any rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface. Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons throughout history, including ceremonial (platform mound ), burial (tumulus ), and commemorative purposes (e.g. Kościuszko Mound ). CONTENTS* 1 Archaeology
Archaeology
* 1.1 North American archaeology * 1.2 India * 1.2.1 Kankali Tila * 1.3 Archaeology
Archaeology
elsewhere * 2 Mound
Mound
types * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References ARCHAEOLOGYNORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY Main article: Mound Builders In the archaeology of the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
, a mound is a deliberately constructed elevated earthen structure or earthwork , intended for a range of potential uses. In European and Asian archaeology, the word "tumulus " may be used as a synonym for an artificial hill, particularly if the hill is related to particular burial customs. While the term "mound" may be applied to historic constructions, most mounds in the United States
United States
are pre-Columbian earthworks, built by Native American peoples
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List Of Adena Culture Sites
This is a LIST OF ADENA CULTURE SITES. The Adena culture
Adena culture
was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BCE , in a time known as the early Woodland Period . The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in a variety of locations, including: Ohio
Ohio
, Indiana
Indiana
, West Virginia , Kentucky
Kentucky
, and parts of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and New York . SITE IMAGE DESCRIPTION Adena Mound (Ross County, Ohio) Adena Mound, the type site for the culture, a registered historic structure near Chillicothe, Ohio
Ohio
. Arledge Mounds I and II An unusual pair of conjoined mounds in the south central part of the state of Ohio, located near Circleville in Pickaway County . Biggs Site The site, located in Greenup County, Kentucky
Kentucky
, is an earthen mound surrounded by a series of circular ditches and embankments. It is connected to the Portsmouth Earthworks directly across the Ohio
Ohio
River in Portsmouth, Ohio
Ohio

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