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Adam Philippe, Comte De Custine
Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine
Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine
(4 February 1740 – 28 August 1793) was a French general. As a young officer in the Bourbon Royal army, he served in the Seven Years' War. In the American Revolutionary War he joined Rochambeau's Expédition Particulière
Expédition Particulière
(Special Expedition) supporting the American colonists. Following the successful Virginia campaign
Virginia campaign
and the Battle of Yorktown, he returned to France
France
and rejoined his unit in the Royal Army. When the French Revolution
French Revolution
began he was elected to the Estates-General and served in the subsequent National Constituent Assembly as a representative from Metz. He supported some of the August Decrees, but also supported, generally, royal prerogative and the rights of the French émigrés
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Metz
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Part of the series onLorraineFlag of Lorraine
Lorraine
since the 13th centuryHistory Mediomatrici
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Brest, France
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Brest (French pronunciation: [bʁɛst] ( listen); Breton pronunciation: [bʀest][1]) is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany. Located in a sheltered position not far from the western tip of the peninsula, and the western extremity of metropolitan France, Brest is an important harbor and the second French military port after Toulon. The city is located on the western edge of continental Europe
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Rhine
The Rhine
Rhine
(Latin: Rhenus, Romansh: Rein, German: Rhein, French: le Rhin,[1] Dutch: Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden
Graubünden
in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland
Rhineland
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
and eventually empties into the North Sea. The largest city on the Rhine
Rhine
is Cologne, Germany, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people
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Speyer
Speyer
Speyer
(German pronunciation: [ˈʃpaɪ̯ɐ], older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Located beside the river Rhine, Speyer
Speyer
is 25 km (16 miles) south of Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen
and Mannheim. Founded by the Romans, it is one of Germany's oldest cities. Speyer
Speyer
is dominated by the Speyer Cathedral, a number of churches and the Altpörtel (old gate)
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Paris
Paris
(French pronunciation: ​[paʁi] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in France, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015).[5] The city is a commune and department, and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de-
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Guillotine
A guillotine (/ˈɡɪlətiːn/; French: [ɡijɔtin]) is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and suspended. The condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to quickly fall and forcefully decapitate the victim with a single, clean pass so that the head falls into a basket below. The device is best known for its use in France, in particular during the French Revolution, where it was celebrated as the people's avenger by supporters of the revolution and vilified as the pre-eminent symbol of the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
by opponents.[1] The name dates from this period, but similar devices had been used elsewhere in Europe
Europe
over several centuries
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Marshal Saxe
Maurice, Count of Saxony (German: Hermann Moritz Graf von Sachsen, French: Maurice de Saxe; 28 October 1696 – 20 November 1750) was a German soldier and officer of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire, the Imperial Army, and at last in French service who became a Marshal and later also Marshal General of France. He is best known for his decisive victory at the Battle of Fontenoy and is honored in the Walhalla memorial.Contents1 Childhood 2 Military career 3 Writings 4 Ancestry 5 References 6 External linksChildhood[edit] Maurice was born at Goslar, an illegitimate son of Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, and the Countess Maria Aurora of Königsmarck. He was the first of eight extramarital children whom August acknowledged, although as many as 354 are claimed by sources, including Wilhelmine of Bayreuth, to have existed.[1] In 1698, the Countess sent him to his father in Warsaw
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Dragoon
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot
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Thirteen Colonies
The Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America
North America
founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States
United States
of America. The Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
had very similar political, constitutional, and legal systems and were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. They were part of Britain's possessions in the New World, which also included colonies in Canada and the Caribbean, as well as East and West Florida. In the 18th century, the British government operated its colonies under a policy of mercantilism, in which the central government administered its possessions for the economic benefit of the mother country
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War Of American Independence
Allied victory:Peace of Paris British recognition of American independence End of the First British Empire British retention of Canada and GibraltarTerritorial changesGreat Britain cedes to the United States the area east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes and St
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Lieutenant General
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt. Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general. In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal
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Yorktown Campaign
Decisive Franco-American victoryEnd of large-scale combat in the war Start of peace negotiationsBelligerents United States  France Great Britain Ansbach-Bayreuth Hesse-KasselCommanders and leaders George Washington Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau François Joseph Paul, Comte de Grasse Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette Anthony Wayne Charles René Dominique Sochet, Chevalier Destouches Jacques-Melchior, Comte de Barras Saint-Laurent Claude-Anne-Montbleru, Marquis de St
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Battle Of Yorktown (1781)
Decisive Franco-American victoryEnd of major land operations in North America Beginning of peace negotiationsBelligerents United States Canadian auxiliaries France Great Britain Loyalists Hesse-Kassel Ansbach[1]Commanders and leaders George Washington Benjamin Lincoln Henry Knox Alexander Hamilton Marquis de Lafayette Baron von Steuben Thomas Nelson Moses Hazen Comte de Rochambeau Comte d'Aboville Marquis de Choisy Comte de Grasse Lord Cornwallis  Charles O'Hara  Banastre Tarleton  Robert Abercromby  Thomas Dundas  Thomas Symonds  Matthew Fuchs  August Voight StrengthFrench: 7,800–8,800 regulars 29 warships[2] American: 8,000 regulars 3,100 militia[2] Total: 18,900 9,000 (includes German troops)[3]Casualties and losses88 killed 301 wounded[4] 142–309 killed; 326–595 wounded prisoners; 7,416–7,685 captured[5]
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Williamsburg, Virginia
Williamsburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,068. In 2014, the population was estimated to be 14,691. Located on the Virginia
Virginia
Peninsula, Williamsburg is in the northern part of the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
metropolitan area. It is bordered by James City County and York County. Williamsburg was founded in 1632 as Middle Plantation, a fortified settlement on high ground between the James and York rivers. The city served as the capital of the Colony and Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
from 1699 to 1780 and was the center of political events in Virginia leading to the American Revolution
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Antilles
The Antilles
Antilles
(/ænˈtɪliːz/; Antilles
Antilles
[ɑ̃.tij] in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch and Antilhas in Portuguese) is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the north and east. The Antillean islands are divided into two smaller groupings: the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
and the Lesser Antilles. The Greater Antilles includes the larger islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola (subdivided into Haiti
Haiti
and the Dominican Republic) and the Cayman Islands
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