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Acute Accent
The ACUTE ACCENT ( ´ ) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin , Cyrillic , and Greek scripts. CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 History * 1.2 Pitch * 1.2.1 Greek * 1.3 Stress * 1.4 Height * 1.5 Length * 1.5.1 Long vowels * 1.5.2 Short vowels * 1.6 Palatalization * 1.7 Tone * 1.8 Disambiguation * 1.9 Emphasis * 1.10 Letter extension * 1.11 Other uses * 1.12 English * 2 Technical notes * 2.1 Microsoft Windows * 2.1.1 Microsoft Office * 2.2 Macintosh OS X * 2.3 Keyboards * 2.4 Internet * 2.5 Limitations * 3 Notes * 4 See also * 5 External links USESHISTORYAn early precursor of the acute accent was the apex , used in Latin inscriptions to mark long vowels
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Arabic Diacritics
The Arabic script
Arabic script
has numerous diacritics , including I\'JAM ⟨إِعْجَام⟩ (i‘jām, consonant pointing), and TASHKIL ⟨تَشْكِيل⟩ (tashkīl, supplementary diacritics). The latter include the ḥARAKāT ⟨حَرَكَات⟩ (vowel marks; singular: ḥarakah ⟨حَرَكَة⟩). The Arabic script
Arabic script
is an impure abjad , where short consonants and long vowels are represented by letters but short vowels and consonant length are not generally indicated in writing. Tashkīl is optional to represent missing vowels and consonant length. Modern Arabic
Arabic
is also written without consonant pointing, but some books are written with consonant pointing such as books for Arabic
Arabic
learners and children's books
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Hebrew Diacritics
Hebrew orthography includes several types of diacritics : * (Mainly) a set of mostly optional ancillary glyphs known as niqqud in Hebrew, which are used either to represent vowels or to distinguish between alternate pronunciations of several letters of the Hebrew alphabet (the rafe sign is sometimes also listed as part of the niqqud system) ; * geresh and gershayim , two diacritics that are not considered a part of niqqud, each of which has several functions (e.g
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Prime
A PRIME NUMBER (or a PRIME) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a prime number is called a composite number . For example, 5 is prime because 1 and 5 are its only positive integer factors , whereas 6 is composite because it has the divisors 2 and 3 in addition to 1 and 6. The fundamental theorem of arithmetic establishes the central role of primes in number theory : any integer greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be expressed as a product of primes that is unique up to ordering. The uniqueness in this theorem requires excluding 1 as a prime because one can include arbitrarily many instances of 1 in any factorization, e.g., 3, 1 · 3, 1 · 1 · 3, etc. are all valid factorizations of 3. The property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of verifying the primality of a given number n is known as trial division
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Full Stop
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category
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* v * t * e In punctuation , the FULL STOP (British , Australian , Irish and New Zealand English ) or PERIOD (Canadian and American English
American English
) is a punctuation mark placed at the end of a sentence
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Comma (diacritic)
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category
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* v * t * e The COMMA ( , ) is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in various languages
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Brahmic Scripts
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE * Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c. BCE * Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE * Old Hungarian c
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Punctuation
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category
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* v * t * e PUNCTUATION (formerly sometimes called POINTING) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and the correct reading, both silently and aloud, of handwritten and printed texts
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Ǻ
Å (lower case: å) — sometimes referred to as a Swedish a or volle — represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages. It is considered a separate letter in the Swedish , Danish , Norwegian , Finnish , North Frisian , Walloon , Chamorro , Lule Sami , Skolt Sami , Southern Sami , and Greenlandic alphabets. Additionally, it is part of the alphabets used for the Alemannic and the Bavarian -Austrian dialects of German . Though Å is derived from an A with an overring , it is considered a separate letter . It developed as a form of semi-ligature of an A with a smaller o above it to denote a long and darker A, similar to how the umlaut mark that distinguishes Ä from A, and Ö /Ø from O, developed from a small e written above the letter in question
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Ê, ê (e -circumflex ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet , found in Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Friulian, Kurdish, Portuguese, Vietnamese, and Welsh. It is used to transliterate Ukrainian and Chinese. CONTENTS* 1 Usage in various languages * 1.1 Afrikaans * 1.2 Chinese * 1.3 Dutch * 1.4 French * 1.5 Friulian * 1.6 Italian * 1.7 Kurdish * 1.8 Portuguese * 1.9 Ukrainian * 1.10 Vietnamese * 1.11 Welsh * 2 Character mappings * 3 See also USAGE IN VARIOUS LANGUAGESAFRIKAANSÊ is not considered a separate letter in Afrikaans, but rather a variation of the letter "e". The circumflex forces the pronunciation of "e" to be /ɛ/, whereas "e" without the circumflex is pronounced either as /e/, /æ/ or /ɛ/ depending on the placement of the vowel in relation to other letters in a word. CHINESEIn the Pinyin romanization of Standard Mandarin , ê represents /ɛ/. It corresponds to Zhuyin ㄝ
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Ă (upper case ) or ă (lower case ), usually referred to in English as A-BREVE , is a letter used in standard Romanian language , Vietnamese language and Chuvash language orthographies . In Romanian, it is used to represent the mid-central unrounded vowel , while in Vietnamese it represents the short A sound. It is the second letter of both the Romanian , Vietnamese , and the pre-1972 Malaysian alphabets, after A . Ă/ă is also used in several languages for transliteration of Bulgarian letter Ъ /ъ . CONTENTS * 1 Romanian * 2 Vietnamese * 3 Malay * 4 Pronunciation respelling for English * 5 Character mappings * 6 See also * 7 References ROMANIANThe sound represented in Romanian by ă is a mid-central vowel /ə /, i.e. schwa . Unlike in English , Catalan or French but like in Indonesian , Bulgarian , Albanian and Afrikaans , it can be stressed. There are words in which it is the only vowel, such as "măr" /mər/ (apple) or "văd" /vəd/ (I see)
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Â, â (a -circumflex ) is a letter of the French , Friulian , West Frisian , Inari Sami , Portuguese , Romanian , Turkish , Vietnamese , Walloon , and Welsh alphabets. CONTENTS* 1 Usage in various languages * 1.1 Berber languages * 1.2 Emilian-Romagnol * 1.3 Faroese * 1.4 French * 1.5 Friulian * 1.6 Inari Sami * 1.7 Italian * 1.8 Portuguese * 1.9 Romanian * 1.10 Russian * 1.11 Serbo-Croatian * 1.12 Vietnamese * 1.13 Turkish * 1.14 Ukrainian * 1.15 Welsh * 2 Character mappings * 3 Windows Alt Key Codes * 4 TeX and LaTeX * 5 See also * 6 References USAGE IN VARIOUS LANGUAGESBERBER LANGUAGES"â" can be used in Berber Latin alphabet to represent . EMILIAN-ROMAGNOLÂ is used to represent in Emilian dialects, as in Bolognese câna "cane"
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List Of Logic Symbols
In logic , a set of symbols is commonly used to express logical representation. The following table lists many common symbols together with their name, pronunciation, and the related field of mathematics. Additionally, the third column contains an informal definition, the fourth column gives a short example, the fifth and sixth give the unicode location and name for use in HTML
HTML
documents. The last column provides the LaTeX
LaTeX
symbol
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Iota Subscript
The IOTA SUBSCRIPT is a diacritic mark in the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
shaped like a small vertical stroke or miniature iota ⟨ι⟩ placed below the letter. It can occur with the vowel letters eta ⟨η⟩, omega ⟨ω⟩, and alpha ⟨α⟩. It represents the former presence of an offglide after the vowel, forming a so‐called "long diphthong". Such diphthongs (i.e., ηι, ωι, ᾱι)—phonologically distinct from the corresponding normal or "short" diphthongs (i.e., ει, οι, ᾰι )—were a feature of ancient Greek in the classical era. The offglide was lost in pronunciation during the Hellenistic period with the result that from approximately the 1st century BC onwards the former diphthongs were no longer distinguished from the simple long vowels η, ω, ᾱ respectively. During the Roman and Byzantine eras, the iota, now mute, was sometimes still written as a normal letter but was often simply left out
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Hyphen
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category
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* v * t * e The HYPHEN (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called HYPHENATION
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Titlo
TITLO is an extended diacritic symbol initially used in early Cyrillic
Cyrillic
manuscripts, e.g., in Old Church Slavonic and Old East Slavic languages. The word is a borrowing from the Greek "τίτλος", "TITLE" (compare dated English tittle , see tilde ). The titlo still appears in inscriptions on modern icons and in service books printed in Church Slavonic . The titlo is drawn as a zigzag line over a text. The usual form is short stroke up, falling slanted line, short stroke up; an alternative is like a sideways square bracket: short stroke up, horizontal line, short stroke down. The titlo has several meanings depending on the context: One meaning is in its use to mark letters when they are used as numerals . This is a quasi-decimal system analogous to Greek numerals . A titlo is also used as a scribal abbreviation mark for frequently written long words and also for nouns describing sacred persons
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