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Acute Accent
The ACUTE ACCENT ( ´ ) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin , Cyrillic , and Greek scripts. CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 History * 1.2 Pitch * 1.2.1 Greek * 1.3 Stress * 1.4 Height * 1.5 Length * 1.5.1 Long vowels * 1.5.2 Short vowels * 1.6 Palatalization * 1.7 Tone * 1.8 Disambiguation * 1.9 Emphasis * 1.10 Letter extension * 1.11 Other uses * 1.12 English * 2 Technical notes * 2.1 Microsoft Windows * 2.1.1 Microsoft Office * 2.2 Macintosh OS X * 2.3 Keyboards * 2.4 Internet * 2.5 Limitations * 3 Notes * 4 See also * 5 External links USESHISTORYAn early precursor of the acute accent was the apex , used in Latin inscriptions to mark long vowels . PITCHGreek See also: Ancient Greek accent The acute accent was first used in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek , where it indicated a syllable with a high pitch . In Modern Greek, a stress accent has replaced the pitch accent, and the acute marks the stressed syllable of a word. The Greek name of the accented syllable was and is ὀξεῖα (_oxeîa_, Modern Greek _oxía_) "sharp" or "high", which was calqued (loan-translated) into Latin as _acūta_ "sharpened"
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Diacritic
A DIACRITIC – also DIACRITICAL MARK, DIACRITICAL POINT, or DIACRITICAL SIGN – is a glyph added to a letter , or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek διακριτικός (_diakritikós_, "distinguishing"), from διακρίνω (_diakrī́nō_, "to distinguish"). _Diacritic_ is primarily an adjective , though sometimes used as a noun , whereas _diacritical_ is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called _accents_. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters. The main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added. Examples are the diaereses in the borrowed French words _naïve_ and _Noël_, which show that the vowel with the diaeresis mark is pronounced separately from the preceding vowel ; the acute and grave accents, which can indicate that a final vowel is to be pronounced, as in _saké _ and poetic _breathèd_; and the cedilla under the "c" in the borrowed French word _façade_, which shows it is pronounced /s / rather than /k /. In other Latin-script alphabets , they may distinguish between homonyms , such as the French _là_ ("there") versus _la_ ("the") that are both pronounced /la/. In Gaelic type , a dot over a consonant indicates lenition of the consonant in question
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Double Acute Accent
The DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script. It is used primarily in written Hungarian , and consequently is sometimes referred to by typographers as HUNGARUMLAUT. The signs formed with diacritic marks are letters in their own right in the Hungarian alphabet (for instance, they are separate letters for the purpose of collation ). CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 Vowel length * 1.1.1 History * 1.1.2 Hungarian * 1.1.3 Slovak * 1.2 Umlaut * 1.2.1 Handwriting
Handwriting
* 1.2.2 Chuvash * 1.3 Faroese * 1.4 Tone * 1.4.1 International Phonetic Alphabet * 2 Technical notes * 2.1 Code page 852 * 2.2 ISO 8859-2 * 2.3 Unicode
Unicode
* 2.4 LaTeX
LaTeX
Input * 2.5 X11 Input * 3 See also * 4 Footnotes * 5 External links USESVOWEL LENGTHHistoryLength marks first appeared in Hungarian orthography in the 15th-century Hussite Bible . Initially, only á and é were marked, since they are different in quality as well as length . Later í, ó, ú were marked as well. In the 18th century, before Hungarian orthography became fixed, u and o with umlaut + acute (ǘ, ö́) were used in some printed documents. 19th century typographers introduced the double acute as a more aesthetic solution
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Grave Accent
The GRAVE ACCENT ( ` ) (US : /ˈɡreɪv/ or UK : /ˈɡrɑːv/ ) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton , Catalan , Corsican , Dutch , Emilian-Romagnol , French , Frisian , Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography ), Haitian Creole , Italian , Mohawk , Occitan , Portuguese , Ligurian , Scottish Gaelic , Vietnamese , Welsh , Romansh , and Yoruba . CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 Pitch * 1.2 Stress * 1.3 Height * 1.4 Disambiguation * 1.5 Length * 1.6 Tone * 1.7 Other uses * 1.8 English * 1.9 As surrogate of apostrophe or (opening) single quote * 2 Technical notes * 2.1 Games * 2.2 Use in programming * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links USESPITCH See also: Ancient Greek accent The grave accent first appeared in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek to mark a lower pitch than the high pitch of the acute accent. In modern practice, it replaces an acute accent in the last syllable of a word when that word is followed immediately by another word. The grave and circumflex have been replaced with an acute accent in the modern monotonic orthography. The accent mark was called βαρεῖα, the feminine form of the adjective βαρύς (_barús_), meaning "heavy" or "low in pitch". This was calqued (loan-translated) into Latin as _gravis_, which then became the English word _grave_
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Double Grave Accent
The DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian and sometimes Slovene languages. It is also used in the International Phonetic Alphabet . In Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian, double grave accent is used to indicate a short falling tone , though in discussion of Slovenian, a single grave accent is also often used for this purpose. The double grave accent is found in both Latin and Cyrillic
Cyrillic
; however, it is not used in the everyday orthography of either language, only in discussions of the phonology of these languages. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the double grave accent is used to indicate extra-low tone . The letters A E I O R U and their Cyrillic
Cyrillic
equivalents а е и о р у can all be found with the double grave accent. Unicode
Unicode
provides precomposed characters for the uppercase and the lowercase Latin letters but not the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
letters. The Cyrillic
Cyrillic
letters can be formed using the combining character for the double grave, which is located at U+030F. The combining character can also be used with IPA vowel symbols, if necessary
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Breve
A BREVE (/briːv/ ( listen ), less often /brɛv/ ( listen ); French: ( listen ); neuter form of the Latin
Latin
brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle. As used in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, it is also called VRACHY or BRACHY. It resembles the caron (the wedge or háček in Czech ) but is rounded; the caron has a sharp tip. Compare caron: * Ǎ ǎ Ě ě Ǐ ǐ Ǒ ǒ Ǔ ǔversus breve: * Ă ă Ĕ
Ĕ
ĕ Ĭ ĭ Ŏ ŏ Ŭ ŭCONTENTS * 1 Length * 2 Other uses * 3 Encoding * 4 Notes * 5 See also * 6 External links LENGTHThe breve sign indicates a short vowel, as opposed to the macron ¯, which indicates long vowels, in academic transcription. It is often used that way in dictionaries and textbooks of Latin
Latin
, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, Tuareg and other languages. However, there is a frequent convention of indicating only the long vowels. It is then understood that a vowel with no macron is short. Some typefaces differentiate Cyrillic style (top) and Latin
Latin
style breve (bottom) In Cyrillic script , a breve is used for Й . In Belarusian , it is used for both the Cyrillic Ў (semivowel U) and in the Latin
Latin
(Łacinka ) Ŭ
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Inverted Breve
INVERTED BREVE or ARCH is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘). It looks similar to the circumflex (ˆ), but the circumflex has a sharp tip; the inverted breve is rounded: compare  â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û (circumflex) versus Ȃ ȃ Ȇ ȇ Ȋ ȋ Ȏ ȏ Ȗ ȗ (inverted breve). Inverted breve can occur above or below the letter. It is not used in any natural language alphabet , but only as a phonetic indicator though it is identical in form to the Ancient Greek circumflex . CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 Serbo-Croatian * 1.2 International Phonetic Alphabet * 2 Encoding * 3 Notes * 4 See also * 5 External links USESSERBO-CROATIANThe inverted breve above is used in traditional Slavicist notation of Serbo-Croatian phonology to indicate long falling accent. It is placed above the syllable nucleus , which can be one of five vowels (ȃ ȇ ȋ ȏ ȗ) or syllabic ȓ. This use of the inverted breve is derived from the Ancient Greek circumflex , which was preserved in the polytonic orthography of Modern Greek and influenced early Serbian Cyrillic printing through religious literature. In the early 19th century, it began to be used in both Latin and Cyrillic as a diacritic to mark prosody in the systematic study of the Serbian-Croatian linguistic continuum
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Caron
A CARON (/ˈkærən/ ), HáčEK or HAčEK (/ˈhɑːtʃɛk/ ; from Czech ) also known as a HACHEK, WEDGE, INVERTED CIRCUMFLEX, INVERTED HAT, is a diacritic ( ˇ ) placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic , Slavic , Finnic , Samic , Berber , and other languages to alter the pronunciation. It has a variety of uses; in most it indicates present or historical palatalization , iotation , or postalveolar articulation . The caron also indicates the third tone (falling and then rising) in the Pinyin romanization of Mandarin Chinese. It is also used to decorate symbols in mathematics, where it is often pronounced /ˈtʃɛk/ ("check"). It looks similar to a breve (˘), but has a sharp tip, like an inverted circumflex (ˆ), while a breve is rounded. Caron vs. breve CARON Ǎ ǎ Ě ě Ǐ ǐ Ǒ ǒ Ǔ ǔ BREVE Ă ă Ĕ ĕ Ĭ ĭ Ŏ ŏ Ŭ ŭThe left (downward) stroke is usually thicker than the right (upward) stroke in serif typefaces
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Cedilla
A CEDILLA (/sᵻˈdɪlə/ si-DIL-ə ; from Spanish ), also known as CEDILHA (from Portuguese) or CéDILLE (from French), is a hook or tail ( ¸ ) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. In Catalan , French , and Portuguese , it is used only under the c, and the entire letter is called respectively c trencada (i.e. "broken C"), c cédille, and c cedilhado (or c de cedilha, colloquially). CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 C * 3 S * 4 Latvian * 5 Marshallese * 6 Other diacritics * 7 French * 8 Romanian * 9 Gagauz * 10 Encodings * 11 References * 12 External links ORIGIN Origin of the cedilla from the Visigothic z The tail originated in Spain as the bottom half of a miniature cursive z . The word "cedilla" is the diminutive of the Old Spanish name for this letter, ceda (zeta). Modern Spanish, however, no longer uses this diacritic, although it is used in Portuguese , Catalan , Occitan , and French , which gives English the alternative spellings of cedille, from French “cédille”, and the Portuguese form cedilha. An obsolete spelling of cedilla is cerilla. The earliest use in English cited by the Oxford English Dictionary is a 1599 Spanish-English dictionary and grammar. Chambers’ Cyclopædia is cited for the printer-trade variant ceceril in use in 1738
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Circumflex
The CIRCUMFLEX is a diacritic in the Latin , Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes. It received its English name from Latin _circumflexus_ "bent around"—a translation of the Greek περισπωμένη (_perispōménē _). The circumflex in the Latin script is chevron -shaped ( ˆ ), while the Greek circumflex may be displayed either like a tilde ( ˜ ) or like an inverted breve ( ̑ ). In English the circumflex, like other diacritics, is sometimes retained on loanwords that used it in the original language (for example, _crème brûlée _). The diacritic is also used in mathematics , where it is typically called a HAT or ROOF or HOUSE. CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 Phonetic marker * 1.1.1 Pitch * 1.1.2 Length * 1.1.3 Stress * 1.1.4 Vowel quality * 1.1.5 Other articulatory features * 1.2 Abbreviation, contraction, and disambiguation * 1.2.1 English * 1.2.2 French * 1.2.3 Italian * 1.2.4 Norwegian * 1.3 Mathematics * 1.4 Music * 2 Circumflex in digital character sets * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links USESPHONETIC MARKERPitch See also: Ancient Greek accent The circumflex has its origins in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek , where it marked long vowels that were pronounced with high and then falling pitch
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Diaeresis (diacritic)
The DIAERESIS (UK : /daɪˈɪrᵻsᵻs/ , US : /daɪˈɛrᵻsᵻs/ dy-ERR-i-sis ; plural: DIAERESES), also spelled DIæRESIS or DIERESIS and also known as the TRéMA (also: TREMA) or the UMLAUT, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, usually a vowel . When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle : ï. The diaeresis and the umlaut are diacritics marking two distinct phonological phenomena. The diaeresis represents the phenomenon also known as diaeresis or hiatus in which a vowel letter is not pronounced as part of a digraph or diphthong . The umlaut (/ˈʊmlaʊt/ UUM-lowt ), in contrast, indicates a sound shift . These two diacritics originated separately; the diaeresis is considerably older. Nevertheless, in modern computer systems using Unicode
Unicode
, the umlaut and diaeresis diacritics are identical, e.g. U+00E4 ä LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS ( HTML
HTML
· ) represents both a-umlaut and a-diaeresis. The same symbol is also used as a diacritic in other cases, distinct from both diaeresis and umlaut. For example, in Albanian and Tagalog ë represents a schwa
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Dot (diacritic)
When used as a diacritic mark, the term DOT is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese . CONTENTS * 1 Overdot * 2 Underdot * 3 Encoding * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OVERDOT See also: Anusvara Language scripts or transcription schemes that use the dot above a letter as a diacritical mark: * In some forms of Arabic romanization , ġ stands for ghayin (غ); ḳ stands for qāf (ق). * The Latin orthography for Chechen includes ċ, ҫ̇, ġ, q̇, and ẋ. * In Emilian-Romagnol , ṅ ṡ ż are used to represent * Traditional Irish typography , where the dot denotes lenition , and is called a ponc séimhithe or buailte "dot of lenition": ḃ ċ ḋ ḟ ġ ṁ ṗ ṡ ṫ. Alternatively, lenition may be represented by a following letter h, thus: bh ch dh fh gh mh ph sh th. In Old Irish orthography, the dot was used only for ḟ ṡ, while the following h was used for ch ph th; lenition of other letters was not indicated. Later the two systems spread to the entire set of lenitable consonants and competed with each other. Eventually the standard practice was to use the dot when writing in Gaelic script and the following h when writing in antiqua
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Hook (diacritic)
In typesetting , the HOOK or TAIL is a diacritic mark attached to letters in many alphabets. In shape it looks like a hook and it can be attached below as a descender , on top as an ascender and sometimes to the side. The orientation of the hook can change its meaning: when it is below and curls to the left it can be interpreted as a palatal hook , and when it curls to the right is called hook tail or tail and can be interpreted as a retroflex hook . It should not be mistaken with the hook above , a diacritical mark used in Vietnamese, or the rhotic hook , used in the International Phonetic Alphabet . LETTERS WITH HOOKIt could be argued that the hook was used to derive the letter J from the letter I, or the letter Eng (ŋ) from the letter N . However, these letters are usually not identified as being formed with the hook. Most letters with hook are used in the International Phonetic Alphabet , and many languages use them (along with capitals) representing the same sounds. The hook often attaches to the top part of the letter, sometimes replacing the ascender. If it attaches to the bottom part of the letter, it can curl to the left (and could be a palatal hook ), or to the right (and could be a retroflex hook )
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