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Active Device
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems. A passive component, depending on field, may be either a component that consumes but does not produce energy (thermodynamic passivity) or a component that is incapable of power gain (incremental passivity). A component that is not passive is called an active component. An electronic circuit consisting entirely of passive components is called a passive circuit and has the same properties as a passive component. Used out-of-context and without a qualifier, the term passive is ambiguous. Typically, analog designers use this term to refer to incrementally passive components and systems, while control systems engineers will use this to refer to thermodynamically passive ones. Systems for which the small signal model is not passive are sometimes called locally active (e.g. transistors and tunnel diodes)
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Analog Electronics
Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The word analogue is derived from the Greek word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional".[1]Contents1 Analogue signals 2 Inherent noise 3 Analogue vs digital electronics3.1 Noise 3.2 Precision 3.3 Design difficulty4 See also 5 ReferencesAnalogue signals[edit] Main article: Analogue signal An analogue signal uses some attribute of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses the angular position of a needle as the signal to convey the information of changes in atmospheric pressure.[2] Electrical signals may represent information by changing their voltage, current, frequency, or total charge
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Active Filter
An active filter is a type of analog circuit implementing an electronic filter using active components, typically an amplifier. Amplifiers included in a filter design can be used to improve the cost, performance and predictability of a filter.[1] An amplifier prevents the load impedance of the following stage from affecting the characteristics of the filter. An active filter can have complex poles and zeros without using a bulky or expensive inductor. The shape of the response, the Q (quality factor), and the tuned frequency can often be set with inexpensive variable resistors. In some active filter circuits, one parameter can be adjusted without affecting the others.[1]Contents1 Types 2 Design of active filters2.1 Advantages 2.2 Disadvantages3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTypes[edit] Using active elements has some limitations. Basic filter design equations neglect the finite bandwidth of amplifiers
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Current–voltage Characteristic
A current–voltage characteristic or I–V curve (current–voltage curve) is a relationship, typically represented as a chart or graph, between the electric current through a circuit, device, or material, and the corresponding voltage, or potential difference across it.Contents1 In electronics1.1 Types of IV curves2 In electrophysiology 3 ReferencesIn electronics[edit]MOSFET drain current vs. drain-to-source voltage for several values of the overdrive voltage, V G S − V t h displaystyle V_ GS -V_ th ; the boundary between linear (Ohmic) and saturation (active) modes is indicated by the upward curving parabola.In electronics, the relationship between the direct current (DC) through an electronic device and the DC voltage across its terminals is called a current–voltage characteristic of the device
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Monotonic Function
In mathematics, a monotonic function[1] [2](or monotone function[3]) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order. This concept first arose in calculus, and was later generalized to the more abstract setting of order theory.Contents1 Monotonicity in calculus and analysis1.1 Monotonic transformation 1.2 Some basic applications and results2 Monotonicity in topology 3 Monotonicity in functional analysis 4 Monotonicity in order theory 5 Monotonicity in the context of search algorithms 6 Boolean functions 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Bibliography 10 External linksMonotonicity in calculus and analysis[edit] In calculus, a function f displaystyle f defined on a subset of the real numbers with real values is called monotonic if and only if it is either entirely non-increasing, or entirely non-decreasing.[2] That is, as per Fig
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Linear Element
Electrical elements are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electrical components, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors, used in the analysis of electrical networks. All electrical networks can be analyzed as multiple electrical elements interconnected by wires. Where the elements roughly correspond to real components the representation can be in the form of a schematic diagram or circuit diagram. This is called a lumped element circuit model. In other cases infinitesimal elements are used to model the network in a distributed element model. These ideal electrical elements represent real, physical electrical or electronic components but they do not exist physically and they are assumed to have ideal properties, while actual electrical components have less than ideal properties, a degree of uncertainty in their values and some degree of nonlinearity
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Semiconductor Device
Semiconductor
Semiconductor
devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors. Semiconductor
Semiconductor
devices have replaced thermionic devices (vacuum tubes) in most applications
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LC Circuit
An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit, tank circuit, or tuned circuit, is an electric circuit consisting of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C, connected together. The circuit can act as an electrical resonator, an electrical analogue of a tuning fork, storing energy oscillating at the circuit's resonant frequency. LC circuits are used either for generating signals at a particular frequency, or picking out a signal at a particular frequency from a more complex signal; this function is called a bandpass filter. They are key components in many electronic devices, particularly radio equipment, used in circuits such as oscillators, filters, tuners and frequency mixers. An LC circuit
LC circuit
is an idealized model since it assumes there is no dissipation of energy due to resistance
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Lyapunov Stability
Various types of stability may be discussed for the solutions of differential equations or difference equations describing dynamical systems. The most important type is that concerning the stability of solutions near to a point of equilibrium. This may be discussed by the theory of Lyapunov. In simple terms, if the solutions that start out near an equilibrium point x e displaystyle x_ e stay near x e displaystyle x_ e forever, then x e displaystyle x_ e is Lyapunov stable. More strongly, if x e displaystyle x_ e is Lyapunov stable and all solutions that start out near x e displaystyle x_ e converge to x e displaystyle x_ e , then x e displaystyle x_ e is asymptotically stable
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Electronic Filter
Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both. Electronic filters can be:passive or active analog or digital high-pass, low-pass, band-pass, band-stop (band-rejection; notch), or all-pass. discrete-time (sampled) or continuous-time linear or non-linear infinite impulse response (IIR type) or finite impulse response (FIR type)The most common types of electronic filters are linear filters, regardless of other aspects of their design
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Loudspeaker
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer;[1] which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.[2] The most widely used type of speaker in the 2010s is the dynamic speaker, invented in 1925 by Edward W. Kellogg and Chester W. Rice. The dynamic speaker operates on the same basic principle as a dynamic microphone, but in reverse, to produce sound from an electrical signal. When an alternating current electrical audio signal is applied to its voice coil, a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap between the poles of a permanent magnet, the coil is forced to move rapidly back and forth due to Faraday's law of induction, which causes a diaphragm (usually conically shaped) attached to the coil to move back and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves. Besides this most common method, there are several alternative technologies that can be used to convert an electrical signal into sound
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Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching
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Power Distribution
Electric power
Electric power
distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers. Distribution substations connect to the transmission system and lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 2 kV and 35 kV with the use of transformers.[1] Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage power to distribution transformers located near the customer's premises. Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization voltage used by lighting, industrial equipment or household appliances. Often several customers are supplied from one transformer through secondary distribution lines. Commercial and residential customers are connected to the secondary distribution lines through service drops
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Power Supply
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. As a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices
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Monolithic Integrated Circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics
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Hybrid Integrated Circuit
A hybrid integrated circuit, HIC, hybrid microcircuit, or simply hybrid is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual devices, such as semiconductor devices (e.g. transistors and diodes) and passive components (e.g. resistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors), bonded to a substrate or printed circuit board (PCB). If the components are on Printed Wiring Board (PWB) then, according to the definition of MIL-PRF-38534, it is not considered hybrid. A PCB can be called PWB if does not contain embedded components. Hybrid circuits are often encapsulated in epoxy, as shown in the photo. A hybrid circuit serves as a component on a PCB in the same way as a monolithic integrated circuit; the difference between the two types of devices is in how they are constructed and manufactured. The advantage of hybrid circuits is that components which cannot be included in a monolithic IC can be used, e.g., capacitors of large value, wound components, crystals, inductors
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