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ActionScript
ACTIONSCRIPT is an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia
Macromedia
Inc. (later acquired by Adobe Systems
Adobe Systems
). It is a derivation of HyperTalk , the scripting language for HyperCard
HyperCard
. It is now a dialect of ECMAScript (meaning it is a superset of the syntax and semantics of the language more widely known as JavaScript
JavaScript
), though it originally arose as a sibling, both being influenced by HyperTalk. ActionScript
ActionScript
is used primarily for the development of websites and software targeting the Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player
platform, used on Web pages in the form of embedded SWF files. ActionScript
ActionScript
3 is also used with Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
system for the development of desktop and mobile applications
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Heads Up Display
A HEAD-UP DISPLAY or HEADS-UP DISPLAY, also known as a HUD, is any transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. The origin of the name stems from a pilot being able to view information with the head positioned "up" and looking forward, instead of angled down looking at lower instruments. A HUD also has the advantage that the pilot's eyes do not need to refocus to view the outside after looking at the optically nearer instruments. Although they were initially developed for military aviation, HUDs are now used in commercial aircraft, automobiles, and other (mostly professional) applications
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Make Controller Kit
MAKE: (or MAKE:) is an American bimonthly magazine published by Maker Media which focuses on do it yourself (DIY) and/or DIWO (Do It With Others) projects involving computers , electronics , robotics , metalworking , woodworking and other disciplines. The magazine is marketed to people who enjoy making things and features complex projects which can often be completed with cheap materials, including household items. Make magazine is considered "a central organ of the maker movement ." CONTENTS * 1 History and profile * 2 Maker Faire
Maker Faire
* 3 Makers * 4 Craft * 5 Make: television * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY AND PROFILEIts first issue was released in January 2005; as of July 2016, 52 issues were published. It is also available as an iPad version and a Texterity digital edition on the Web , which is free of charge to existing magazine subscribers
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Just-in-time Compilation
In computing , JUST-IN-TIME (JIT) COMPILATION, also known as DYNAMIC TRANSLATION, is compilation done during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution. Most often this consists of translation to machine code , which is then executed directly, but can also refer to translation to another format. A system implementing a JIT compiler typically continuously analyses the code being executed and identifies parts of the code where the speedup gained from compilation would outweigh the overhead of compiling that code. JIT compilation is a combination of the two traditional approaches to translation to machine code – ahead-of-time compilation (AOT), and interpretation – and combines some advantages and drawbacks of both. Roughly, JIT compilation combines the speed of compiled code with the flexibility of interpretation, with the overhead of an interpreter and the additional overhead of compiling (not just interpreting)
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Web Page
A WEB PAGE, or WEBPAGE, is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers . A web browser displays a web page on a monitor or mobile device . The web page is what displays, but the term also refers to a computer file , usually written in HTML
HTML
or comparable markup language . Web browsers coordinate the various web resource elements for the written web page, such as style sheets , scripts , and images , to present the web page. Typical web pages provide hypertext that includes a navigation bar or a sidebar menu to other web pages via hyperlinks , often referred to as links. On a network, a web browser can retrieve a web page from a remote web server . On a higher level, the web server may restrict access to only a private network such as a corporate intranet or it provides access to the World Wide Web. On a lower level, the web browser uses the Hypertext
Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to make such requests
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HyperCard
HYPERCARD is application software and a programming tool for Apple Macintosh and Apple IIGS
Apple IIGS
computers. It is among the first successful hypermedia systems before the World Wide Web . It combines database abilities with a graphical, flexible, user-modifiable interface. HyperCard
HyperCard
also features HyperTalk , a programming language for manipulating data and the user interface. This combination of features – simple form layout, database abilities, and ease of programming – led to widespread use in many different roles. Some HyperCard
HyperCard
users employed it as a programming system for rapid application development of applications and databases, others for building interactive applications with no database requirements, command and control systems, and many examples in the demoscene
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Media Type
A MEDIA TYPE (also MIME TYPE and CONTENT TYPE) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet
Internet
. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments; hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP
HTTP
and document file formats such as HTML
HTML
, for similar purpose
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Programming Paradigm
PROGRAMMING PARADIGMS are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms. Some paradigms are concerned mainly with implications for the execution model of the language, such as allowing side effects , or whether the sequence of operations is defined by the execution model. Other paradigms are concerned mainly with the way that code is organized, such as grouping a code into units along with the state that is modified by the code. Yet others are concerned mainly with the style of syntax and grammar
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Object-oriented Language
OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects ", which may contain data , in the form of fields , often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods . A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this " or "self"). In OOP, computer programs are designed by making them out of objects that interact with one another. There is significant diversity of OOP languages, but the most popular ones are class-based , meaning that objects are instances of classes , which typically also determine their type . Many of the most widely used programming languages (such as C++, Object Pascal, Java, Python etc.) are multi-paradigm programming languages that support object-oriented programming to a greater or lesser degree, typically in combination with imperative , procedural programming
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Variable (programming)
In computer programming , a VARIABLE or SCALAR is a storage location paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier ), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value . The variable name is the usual way to reference the stored value; this separation of name and content allows the name to be used independently of the exact information it represents. The identifier in computer source code can be bound to a value during run time , and the value of the variable may thus change during the course of program execution . Variables in programming may not directly correspond to the concept of variables in mathematics . The value of a computing variable is not necessarily part of an equation or formula as in mathematics. In computing, a variable may be employed in a repetitive process — assigned a value in one place, then used elsewhere, then reassigned a new value and used again in the same way (see iteration )
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Switch Statement
In computer programming languages , a SWITCH STATEMENT is a type of selection control mechanism used to allow the value of a variable or expression to change the control flow of program execution via a multiway branch . Switch statements exist in most high-level imperative programming languages such as Pascal , Ada , C / C++
C++
, C# and Java , and in many other types of language, using such keywords as switch, case, select or inspect. Switch statements come in two main variants: a structured switch, as in Pascal, which takes exactly one branch, and an unstructured switch, as in C, which functions as a type of goto . The main reasons for using a switch include improving clarity, by reducing otherwise repetitive coding, and (if the heuristics permit) also offering the potential for faster execution through easier compiler optimization in many cases
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Class (computer Science)
In object-oriented programming , a CLASS is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects , providing initial values for state (member variables ) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods ). In many languages, the class name is used as the name for the class (the template itself), the name for the default constructor of the class (a subroutine that creates objects), and as the type of objects generated by instantiating the class; these distinct concepts are easily conflated. When an object is created by a constructor of the class, the resulting object is called an instance of the class, and the member variables specific to the object are called instance variables , to contrast with the class variables shared across the class
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Inheritance (computer Science)
In object-oriented programming , INHERITANCE is when an object or class is based on another object (prototypal inheritance ) or class (class-based inheritance ), using the same implementation. Inheritance in most class-based object oriented languages is a mechanism in which one object acquires all the properties and behaviors of parent object. The idea behind inheritance is that you can create new classes that are built upon existing classes. or specifying a new implementation to maintain the same behavior (realizing an interface). Such an inherited class is called a SUBCLASS of its parent class or super class. It is a mechanism for code reuse and to allow independent extensions of the original software via public classes and interfaces. The relationships of objects or classes through inheritance give rise to a directed graph . Inheritance was invented in 1967 for Simula
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Procedural Programming
PROCEDURAL PROGRAMMING is a programming paradigm , derived from structured programming , based upon the concept of the procedure call. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines , or functions (not to be confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in functional programming ), simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself. The first major procedural programming languages first appeared circa 1960, including Fortran , ALGOL , COBOL
COBOL
and BASIC
BASIC
. Pascal and C were published closer to the 1970s, while Ada was released in 1980. Go is an example of a more modern procedural language, first published in 2009
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Program Loops
In computer science , CONTROL FLOW (or FLOW OF CONTROL) is the order in which individual statements , instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated. The emphasis on explicit control flow distinguishes an imperative programming language from a declarative programming language. Within an imperative programming language , a control flow statement is a statement the execution of which results in a choice being made as to which of two or more paths to follow. For non-strict functional languages, functions and language constructs exist to achieve the same result, but they are usually not termed control flow statements. A set of statements is in turn generally structured as a block , which in addition to grouping, also defines a lexical scope
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