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Action (music)
The ACTION of an instrument plucked by hand is the distance between the fingerboard and the string . In keyboard instruments, the action is the mechanism that translates the motion of the keys into the creation of sound (by plucking or striking the strings). CONTENTS * 1 Keyboard instruments * 2 Instruments plucked by hand * 2.1 Adjusting the action * 3 References KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTSIn a harpsichord , the main part of the action is a jack, a vertical strip of wood seated on the far end of the key. At the top of the jack is mounted a hinged tongue bearing a plectrum . When the key is pressed and the jack rises, the plectrum plucks the string. When the key is released and the jack falls back down, the tongue permits the plectrum to retract slightly, so that it can return to its rest position without getting stuck or plucking the string again on the way down. The jack also bears a damper, whose purpose is to stop the vibration of the string when the key is released
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Tune-o-matic
TUNE-O-MATIC (also abbreviated to TOM) is the name of a fixed or floating bridge design for electric guitars . It was designed by Ted McCarty ( Gibson Guitar Corporation president) and introduced on the Gibson Super 400 guitar in 1953 and the Les Paul Custom the following year. In 1955, it was used on the Gibson Les Paul
Gibson Les Paul
Gold Top. It was gradually accepted as a standard on almost all Gibson electric guitars, replacing the previous wrap-around bridge design, except on the budget series. CONTENTS * 1 Function * 2 Construction * 3 Varieties * 4 Adjust-o-Matic * 5 Saddle groove maintenance * 6 Spelling * 7 References FUNCTIONGuitar strings , especially steel strings, are not ideal vibrators. Generally the thicker the string, the shorter the effective length. This refers to the length of string involved in producing a sound, as opposed to the length between the nut and the bridge
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Bridge (instrument)
A BRIDGE is a device that supports the strings on a stringed musical instrument and transmits the vibration of those strings to another structural component of the instrument—typically a soundboard , such as the top of a guitar or violin—which transfers the sound to the surrounding air. CONTENTS * 1 Explanation * 2 Positioning * 3 Construction * 4 Bridge pin * 5 Operation * 6 Electric guitar bridges * 6.1 Vibrato
Vibrato
bridges * 6.1.1 Non-Locking Tremolo/ Vibrato
Vibrato
systems * 6.1.2 Locking Tremolo/ Vibrato
Vibrato
systems * 6.2 Non-Tremolo/ Vibrato
Vibrato
bridges * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links EXPLANATIONMost stringed instruments produce sound through the application of energy to the strings, which sets them into vibratory motion
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Screw
A SCREW is a type of fastener , sometimes similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread) or just thread
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Truss Rod
The TRUSS ROD is part of a guitar or other fretted, stringed-instruments that stabilizes the lengthwise forward curvature (also called relief), of the neck . Usually it is a steel bar or rod that runs inside the neck, beneath the fingerboard. Some are non-adjustable, but most modern truss rods have a nut at one or both ends that adjust its tension. The first truss rod patent was applied for by Thaddeus McHugh, an employee of the Gibson company, in 1921, though the idea of a "truss rod" appears in patents as early as 1908. CONTENTS * 1 Application * 2 Construction and action * 3 Location and adjustment * 4 Dual action truss rod * 5 See also * 6 References APPLICATION Cross-section of an electric guitar neck showing the position of the truss rod A guitar neck made of wood is prone to bending due to mainly two factors: 1.) atmospheric changes, and 2.) the pull created by changing to a different gauge of guitar strings
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Electric Guitar
An ELECTRIC GUITAR is a fretted stringed instrument with a neck and body that uses a pickup to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitarist strums , plucks or fingerpicks the strings. It is sensed by a pickup , most commonly by a magnetic pickup that uses the principle of direct electromagnetic induction . The signal generated by an electric guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker , so it is plugged into a guitar amplifier before being sent to a loudspeaker, which makes a sound loud enough to hear. The output of an electric guitar is an electric signal, and the signal can easily be altered by electronic circuits to add "color" to the sound or change the sound. Often the signal is modified using effects such as reverb and distortion and "overdrive" , with the growling sound of the latter being a key element of the sound of the electric guitar as it is used in blues and rock music
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Standard Tuning
In music, STANDARD TUNING refers to the typical tuning of a string instrument . This notion is contrary to that of scordatura , i.e. an alternate tuning designated to modify either the timbre or technical capabilities of the desired instrument
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Piano Action
The PIANO ACTION MECHANISM, or the KEY ACTION MECHANISM, or simply the ACTION of a piano or other musical keyboards , is the mechanical assembly which translates the depression of the keys into rapid motion of a hammer, which creates sound by striking the strings. Action can refer to that of a piano or other musical keyboards, including the electronic or digital stage piano and synthesizer , on which some models have "weighted keys", which simulate the touch and feel of an acoustic piano. The design of the key action mechanism determines the "weighted keys" feeling; that is, the feeling of the heaviness of the touch of the keys."A professional pianist is likely to care most about the piano's action, because that is what controls its responsiveness and relative lightness--or heaviness--of touch
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Musical Note
In music , the term NOTE has three primary meanings: * A sign used in musical notation to represent the relative duration and pitch of a sound (♪, ♫); * A pitched sound itself. * A pitch class .Notes are the building blocks of much written music: discretizations of musical phenomena that facilitate performance, comprehension, and analysis . The term note can be used in both generic and specific senses: one might say either "the piece ' Happy Birthday to You
Happy Birthday to You
' begins with two notes having the same pitch", or "the piece begins with two repetitions of the same note". In the former case, one uses note to refer to a specific musical event; in the latter, one uses the term to refer to a class of events sharing the same pitch
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Plectrum
A PLECTRUM is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument . For hand-held instruments such as guitars and mandolins , the plectrum is often called a PICK, and is a separate tool held in the player's hand. In harpsichords , the plectra are attached to the jack mechanism. CONTENTS* 1 Plectra wielded by hand * 1.1 Guitars and similar instruments * 1.2 Non-Western instruments * 1.3 Gallery: plectra from around the world * 2 Plectra in harpsichords * 2.1 Voicing harpsichord plectra * 3 Etymology and usage * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links * 7 References PLECTRA WIELDED BY HANDGUITARS AND SIMILAR INSTRUMENTS Main article: Guitar
Guitar
pick A plectrum (pick) for electric guitars , acoustic guitars , bass guitars and mandolins is typically a thin piece of plastic or other material shaped like a pointed teardrop or triangle. The size, shape and width may vary considerably
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Fingerboard
The FINGERBOARD (also known as a FRETBOARD on fretted instruments) is an important component of most stringed instruments . It is a thin, long strip of material, usually wood, that is laminated to the front of the neck of an instrument. The strings run over the fingerboard, between the nut and bridge . To play the instrument, a musician presses strings down to the fingerboard to change the vibrating length, changing the pitch . This is called stopping the strings. Depending on the instrument and the style of music, the musician may pluck, strum or bow one or more strings with the hand that is not fretting the notes. On some instruments, notes can be sounded by the fretting hand alone, such as with hammer ons , an electric guitar technique. The word "fingerboard" in other languages sometimes occurs in musical directions. In particular, the direction sul tasto (Ital., also sulla tastiera, Fr. sur la touche, G
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Harpsichord
A HARPSICHORD is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard , a row of levers which the player presses. When the player presses one or more keys, this triggers a mechanism, which plucks one or more strings with a small quill. "Harpsichord" designates the whole family of similar plucked keyboard instruments, including the smaller virginals , muselar , and spinet . The harpsichord was widely used in Renaissance and Baroque music
Baroque music
. During the late 18th century, it gradually disappeared from the musical scene, with the rise of the piano
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Bartolomeo Cristofori
BARTOLOMEO CRISTOFORI DI FRANCESCO (Italian pronunciation: ; May 4, 1655 – January 27, 1731) was an Italian maker of musical instruments, generally regarded as the inventor of the piano . CONTENTS* 1 Life * 1.1 Earlier instruments * 1.2 The first appearance of the piano * 1.3 Later life * 2 Cristofori\'s pianos * 2.1 Design * 2.1.1 Action * 2.1.2 Hammers * 2.1.3 Frame * 2.1.4 Inverted wrest plank * 2.1.5 Soundboard * 2.1.6 Strings * 2.2 Sound * 2.3 Initial reception of the piano * 3 Surviving instruments * 4 Assessments of Cristofori * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links LIFEThe available source materials on Cristofori's life include his birth and death records, two wills, the bills he submitted to his employers, and a single interview carried out by Scipione Maffei
Scipione Maffei
. From the latter, both Maffei's notes and the published journal article are preserved
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Piano
The PIANO is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard , which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano . The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" respectively, in this context referring to the variations in volume (i.e., loudness) produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, and the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack
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