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Acromyrmex Octospinosus
Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
guentheri (Forel , 1893) Formica octospinosa Reich, 1793 ACROMYRMEX OCTOSPINOSUS is a species of New World ants of the subfamily Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
of the genus Acromyrmex. It is found in the wild naturally in Central America ranging from southern Mexico
Mexico
down to Panama
Panama
; and across northern South America
South America
in Venezuela
Venezuela
. Head view of ant Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
octospinosus specimen Foundresses of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
octospinosus forage for leaves as garden substrate (semi-claustral foundation). The fungal pellet and substrate usually are attached to rootlets, which are used as a platform for the garden. This arrangement keeps the garden suspended away from the earthen chamber of the underground nest during early colony growth, and it serves to minimize contact between the garden and contaminants. A. octospinosus foundresses produce from 3 to 7 workers in 2.7 months after founding the nest, but workers do not forage for substrate at this time. Incipient nests died or were abandoned at a monthly rate of about 50%. The ants routinely clean their legs before manipulating the garden substrate
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον _arthron_, "joint" and πούς _pous_, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum ARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments , each with a pair of appendages . The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments. They have over a million described species, making up more than 80% of all described living animal species, some of which, unlike most animals, are very successful in dry environments. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean _ Stygotantulus _ up to the Japanese spider crab . Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a hemocoel , which accommodates their internal organs , and through which their haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates; they have open circulatory systems . Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are generally built of repeated segments
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Insect
See text . INSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin _insectum_, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum Arthopoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in nearly all environments , although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans . The life cycles of insects vary but most hatch from eggs . Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts . The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat, and can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo 4-stage metamorphosis (see holometabolism )
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Hymenoptera
Apocrita Symphyta HYMENOPTERA is a large order of insects , comprising the sawflies , wasps , bees , and ants . Over 150,000 living species of Hymenoptera have been described, in addition to over 2,000 extinct ones. Females typically have a special ovipositor for inserting eggs into hosts or places that are otherwise inaccessible. The ovipositor is often modified into a stinger . The young develop through holometabolism (complete metamorphosis )—that is, they have a worm-like larval stage and an inactive pupal stage before they mature. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Evolution * 3 Anatomy * 4 Reproduction * 4.1 Sex determination * 4.2 Thelytoky * 5 Diet * 6 Classification * 6.1 Symphyta * 6.2 Apocrita * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe name Hymenoptera refers to the wings of the insects, but the original derivation is ambiguous. :42 All references agree that the derivation involves the Ancient Greek πτερόν (_pteron_) for wing. The Ancient Greek ὑμήν (_hymen_) for membrane provides a plausible etymology for the term because species in this order have membranous wings
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Ant
Martialinae Leptanillinae Amblyoponinae Paraponerinae Agroecomyrmecinae Ponerinae Proceratiinae Ecitoninae‡ Aenictinae‡ Dorylini ‡ Aenictogitoninae‡ Cerapachyinae‡* Leptanilloidinae‡ Dolichoderinae Aneuretinae Pseudomyrmecinae Myrmeciinae Ectatomminae Heteroponerinae Myrmicinae Formicinae A phylogeny of the extant ant subfamilies . *Cerapachyinae is paraphyletic ‡ The previous dorylomorph subfamilies were synonymized under Dorylinae by Brady _et al_. in 2014 ANTS are eusocial insects of the family FORMICIDAE and, along with the related wasps and bees , belong to the order Hymenoptera . Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the Cretaceous period, about 99 million years ago, and diversified after the rise of flowering plants . More than 12,500 of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified. They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and the distinctive node-like structure that forms their slender waists. Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities to highly organised colonies that may occupy large territories and consist of millions of individuals
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Myrmicinae
MYRMICINAE is a subfamily of ants , with about 140 extant genera; their distribution is cosmopolitan . The pupae lack cocoons . Some species retain a functional sting . The petioles of Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
consist of two nodes. The nests are permanent and in soil, rotting wood, under stones, or in trees. CONTENTS * 1 Identification * 2 Tribes * 3 Genera * 4 References * 5 External links IDENTIFICATIONMyrmicine worker ants have a distinct postpetiole , i.e., abdominal segment III is notably smaller than segment IV and set off from it by a well-developed constriction; the pronotum is inflexibly fused to the rest of the mesosoma , such that the promesonotal suture is weakly impressed or absent; and a functional sting is usually present. The clypeus is well-developed; as a result, the antennal sockets are well separated from the anterior margin of the head. Most myrmicine genera possess well-developed eyes and frontal lobes that partly conceal the antennal insertions
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Attini
See text DIVERSITY 46 genera FUNGUS-GROWING ANTS (tribe ATTINI) comprise all the known fungus -growing ant species participating in ant-fungus mutualism . They are the sister group to the subtribe Dacetina . Leafcutter ants , including Atta and Acromyrmex, make up two of the genera. Their cultivars come from the fungal tribe Leucocoprineae of family Agaricaceae . This New World
New World
ant clade is thought to have originated about 60 million years ago in the South American rainforest . While the fungal cultivars of the 'lower' attine ants can survive outside an ant colony, those of 'higher' attine ants are obligate mutualists. This obligate mutualism is thought to have evolved outside of the rainforest, in areas where the fungi would not have been able to survive outside a colony anyway due to the dry environment
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Acromyrmex
ACROMYRMEX is a genus of New World ants of the subfamily Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
. This genus is found in South America
South America
and parts of Central America and the Caribbean Islands , and contains 31 known species . Commonly known as "leafcutter ants " they comprise one of the two genera of advanced attines within the tribe Attini, along with Atta . CONTENTS * 1 Anatomy * 2 Ecology * 2.1 Reproduction * 2.2 Colony hierarchy * 2.3 Ant-fungus mutualism * 2.4 Waste management * 2.5 Foraging behaviour * 3 Interactions with humans * 4 Species * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ANATOMY Profile view of an A. balzani worker Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
species' hard outer covering, the exoskeleton or cuticle, functions as armour , protection against dangerous solar waves, an attachment base for internal muscles , and to prevent water loss. It is divided into three main parts; the head , thorax , and abdomen . A small segment between the thorax and abdomen, the petiole , is split into two nodes in Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
species. Diagram of an ant's anatomy The antennae are the most important sense organs Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
species possess, and are jointed so the ant can extend them forward to investigate an object
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce , which he called _Pinus abies_. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is _Picea abies_. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and _vice versa_). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Auguste Forel
AUGUSTE-HENRI FOREL (1 September 1848 – 27 July 1931) was a Swiss myrmecologist , neuroanatomist , psychiatrist and eugenicist , notable for his investigations into the structure of the human brain and that of ants . For example, he is considered a co-founder of the neuron theory . Forel is also known for his early contributions to sexology and psychology. From 1978 until 2000 Forel’s image appeared on the 1000 Swiss franc banknote . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Scientific work * 3 Partial bibliography * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in villa La Gracieuse, Morges
Morges
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, to Victor Forel a pious Swiss Calvinist and Pauline Morin, a French Huguenot he was brought up under a protective household. At the age of seven he began to take an interest in insects. He went to school at Morges
Morges
and Lausanne before joining the medical school at Zurich. Forel had a diverse and mixed career as a thinker on many subjects. At Zurich he was inspired by the work of Bernhard Aloys von Gudden (1824-1886). In 1871 he went to Vienna and studied under Theodor Meynert (1833-1892) but was disappointed by Meynert. In 1873 he moved to Germany to assist Gudden at his Munich Kreis-Irrenanstalt. He improved upon various techniques in neuro-anatomy including modifications to Gudden's microtome design
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature ). For example, _ Boa constrictor _ is one of four species of the _Boa _ genus. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being . In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time
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Subfamily
In biological classification , a SUBFAMILY ( Latin
Latin
: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank , next below family but more inclusive than genus . Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae", and zoological names with "-inae". SEE ALSO * International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants * International Code of Zoological Nomenclature * Rank (botany) * Rank (zoology) SOURCES * ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6 . Article 19. * ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999). "Article 29.2. Suffixes for family-group names". International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Fourth ed.). International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, XXIX. p. 306
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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