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Acromyrmex Hystrix
ACROMYRMEX HYSTRIX is a species of leaf-cutter ant , a New World ant of the subfamily Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
of the genus Acromyrmex. CONTENTS * 1 Distribution * 2 Subspecies * 2.1 Synonyms * 3 See also * 4 References DISTRIBUTIONThis species can be found in regions including the Amazon and Ecuador
Ecuador
. SUBSPECIES * Acromyrmex hystrix ajax Santschi , 1925 * Acromyrmex hystrix hystrix Latreille , 1802 SYNONYMS * Acromyrmex emilii Santschi , 1925 * Atta hystrix Latreille , 1802 * Formica hystrix Latreille, 1802SEE ALSO * List of leafcutter ants REFERENCES * ^ " Acromyrmex hystrix (Latreille, 1802) - Encyclopedia of Life". Eol.org. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2010-08-20. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-08-22
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Amazon Rainforest
The AMAZON RAINFOREST (Portuguese : Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish : Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; French : Forêt amazonienne; Dutch : Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as AMAZONIA or the AMAZON JUNGLE , is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 square kilometres (2,700,000 sq mi), of which 5,500,000 square kilometres (2,100,000 sq mi) are covered by the rainforest. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Subfamily
In biological classification , a SUBFAMILY ( Latin
Latin
: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank , next below family but more inclusive than genus . Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae", and zoological names with "-inae". SEE ALSO * International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants * International Code of Zoological Nomenclature * Rank (botany) * Rank (zoology) SOURCES * ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG
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Leaf-cutter Ant
LEAFCUTTER ANTS, a non-generic name , are any of 47 species of leaf-chewing ants belonging to the two genera Atta and Acromyrmex . These species of tropical , fungus-growing ants are all endemic to South and Central America
Central America
, Mexico
Mexico
, and parts of the southern United States . Leafcutter ants can carry more than three times their body weight and cut and process fresh vegetation (leaves, flowers, and grasses) to serve as the nutritional substrate for their fungal cultivars. Acromyrmex and Atta ants have much in common anatomically; however, the two can be identified by their external differences. Atta ants have three pairs of spines and a smooth exoskeleton on the upper surface of the thorax , while Acromyrmex ants have four pairs and a rough exoskeleton. Next to humans, leafcutter ants form the largest and most complex animal societies on Earth
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Ecuador
Coordinates : 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500 REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR República del Ecuador
Ecuador
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish ) * "Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin ) * "God, homeland and freedom" ANTHEM: Salve, Oh Patria (Spanish) Hail, Oh Homeland Location of
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Felix Santschi
FELIX SANTSCHI (1 December 1872 – 20 November 1940) was a Swiss entomologist known for discovering that ants use the sun as a compass and for describing about 2000 taxa of ants. Santschi is known for his pioneering work on the navigational abilities of ants . In one experiment, he investigated the way harvester ants used the sky to navigate . He found that as long as even a small patch of sky was visible, the ants could return directly to the nest after gathering food. However, when the sky was completely hidden, they lost their sense of direction and began moving haphazardly. Some seventy years later it was shown that ants are guided by the polarization of light. * ^ Wehner, Rüdiger (1990). "On the brink of introducing sensory ecology: Felix Santschi (1872–1940) — Tabib-en-Neml". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology . 27 (4): 295–306. doi :10.1007/bf00164903 . * ^ Wehner, R. (1997). Orientation and Communication in Arthropods. Birkhäuser, Basel
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Acromyrmex Hystrix
ACROMYRMEX HYSTRIX is a species of leaf-cutter ant , a New World ant of the subfamily Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
of the genus Acromyrmex. CONTENTS * 1 Distribution * 2 Subspecies * 2.1 Synonyms * 3 See also * 4 References DISTRIBUTIONThis species can be found in regions including the Amazon and Ecuador
Ecuador
. SUBSPECIES * Acromyrmex hystrix ajax Santschi , 1925 * Acromyrmex hystrix hystrix Latreille , 1802 SYNONYMS * Acromyrmex emilii Santschi , 1925 * Atta hystrix Latreille , 1802 * Formica hystrix Latreille, 1802SEE ALSO * List of leafcutter ants REFERENCES * ^ " Acromyrmex hystrix (Latreille, 1802) - Encyclopedia of Life". Eol.org. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2010-08-20. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-08-22
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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List Of Leafcutter Ants
This is a LIST OF LEAFCUTTER ANTS , comprising 42 species from two genera: Atta and Acromyrmex
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Latreille
PIERRE ANDRé LATREILLE (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist , specialising in arthropods . Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution
French Revolution
, Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis
Necrobia ruficollis
. He published his first important work in 1796 (Précis des caractères génériques des insectes), and was eventually employed by the Muséum National d\'Histoire Naturelle . His foresighted work on arthropod systematics and taxonomy gained him respect and accolades, including being asked to write the volume on arthropods for George Cuvier 's monumental work, Le Règne Animal , the only part not by Cuvier himself. Latreille was considered the foremost entomologist of his time, and was described by one of his pupils as "the prince of entomologists"
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Hymenoptera
Apocrita Symphyta HYMENOPTERA is a large order of insects , comprising the sawflies , wasps , bees , and ants . Over 150,000 living species of Hymenoptera have been described, in addition to over 2,000 extinct ones. Females typically have a special ovipositor for inserting eggs into hosts or places that are otherwise inaccessible. The ovipositor is often modified into a stinger
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Insect
See text . SYNONYMS * Ectognatha * EntomidaINSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin
Latin
insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum EUARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . The term ARTHROPODA as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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