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Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire
Empire
(/əˈkiːmənɪd/ c. 550–330 BC), also called the First Persian Empire,[11] was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Babylonian Religion
Babylonian religion
Babylonian religion
is the religious practice of Babylonia. Babylonian mythology was greatly influenced by their Sumerian counterparts, and was written on clay tablets inscribed with the cuneiform script derived from Sumerian cuneiform. The myths were usually either written in Sumerian or Akkadian
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Egyptian Language
The Egyptian language
Egyptian language
was spoken in ancient Egypt
Egypt
and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian
Old Egyptian
stage (mid-3rd millennium BC, Old Kingdom of Egypt). Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.[2] Its classical form is known as Middle Egyptian, the vernacular of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
which remained the literary language of Egypt until the Roman period. The spoken language evolved into Demotic by the time of Classical Antiquity, and finally into Coptic by the time of Christianisation
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Sumerian Language
Sumerian (Sumerian: 𒅴𒂠 EME.G̃IR15 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer
Sumer
and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(modern-day Iraq)
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Median Language
The Median
Median
language (also Medean or Medic) was the language of the Medes.[2] It is an Old Iranian language
Iranian language
and classified as belonging to the Northwestern Iranian subfamily, which includes many other languages such as Azari, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Kurdish (Zazaki, Gorani, Sorani, Kurmanji), and Baluchi.[3]Contents1 Attestation 2 Identity 3 Predecessor of modern Iranian languages 4 ReferencesAttestation[edit] Median
Median
is attested only by numerous loanwords in Old Persian. Nothing is known of its grammar, "but it shares important phonological isoglosses with Avestan, rather than Old Persian. Under the Median rule.... Median
Median
must to some extent have been the official Iranian language in western Iran".[4] No documents dating to Median
Median
times have been preserved, and it is not known what script these texts might have been in
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Lingua Franca
A lingua franca (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/; lit. Frankish tongue),[1] also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.[2] Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities.[3][4] The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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Western Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia
Asia
or Southwest Asia
Asia
is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East), the main difference usually being the exclusion of the majority of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa) and the inclusion of the Caucasus. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
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Massagetae
The Massagetae, or Massageteans,[1] were an ancient Eastern Iranian nomadic confederation,[2][3][4][5][6] who inhabited the steppes of Central Asia, north-east of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in modern Turkmenistan, western Uzbekistan, and southern Kazakhstan. The Massagetae
Massagetae
are known primarily from the writings of Herodotus
Herodotus
who described the Massagetae
Massagetae
as living on a sizeable portion of the great plain east of the Caspian Sea.[7] He several times refers to them as living "beyond the River Araxes", which flows through the Caucasus and into the west Caspian.[8] Scholars have offered various explanations for this anomaly
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Akkadian Language
Akkadian
Akkadian
(/əˈkeɪdiən/ akkadû, 𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑 ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: 𒌵𒆠 URIKI )[2][3] is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(Akkad, Assyria, Isin, Larsa and Babylonia) from the 30th century BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Eastern Aramaic among Mesopotamians between the 8th century BC and its final extinction by the 1st to 3rd centuries AD. It is the earliest attested Semitic language,[4] and used the cuneiform writing system, which was originally used to write the unrelated, and also extinct, Sumerian (which is a language isolate). Akkadian
Akkadian
was named after the city of Akkad, a major centre of Mesopotamian civilization during the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(c
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Ecbatana
Ecbatana
Ecbatana
(/ɛkˈbætənə/; Old Persian: 𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna,[1] literally "the place of gathering", Aramaic: אַחְמְתָא‎, Ancient Greek: Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus
Aeschylus
and Herodotus, elsewhere Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian: 𒆳𒀀𒃵𒋫𒉡 kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran. It is believed that Ecbatana
Ecbatana
is in Tell Hagmatana (Tappe-ye Hagmatāna), an archaeological mound in Hamedan.[2] According to Herodotus, Ecbatana
Ecbatana
was chosen as the Medes' capital in the late 8th century BC by Deioces.[2] Under the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Persian kings, Ecbatana, situated at the foot of Mount Alvand, became a summer residence
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Official Language
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration).[1] Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law",[2] the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government.[3] Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages.[4][5] Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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