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Acetate
An acetate /ˈæsɪteɪt/ is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, or metallic base. "Acetate" also describes the conjugate base or ion (specifically, the negatively charged ion called an anion) typically found in aqueous solution and written with the chemical formula C2H3O2−. The neutral molecules formed by the combination of the acetate ion and a positive ion (called a cation) are also commonly called "acetates" (hence, acetate of lead, acetate of aluminum, etc.). The simplest of these is hydrogen acetate (called acetic acid) with corresponding salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion CH3CO2−, or CH3COO−. Most of the approximately 5 billion kilograms of acetic acid produced annually in industry are used in the production of acetates, which usually take the form of polymers. In nature, acetate is the most common building block for biosynthesis
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Paint
Paint
Paint
is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color, or provide texture to objects. Paint
Paint
can be made or purchased in many colors—and in many different types, such as watercolor, synthetic, etc
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Aqueous Solution
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Substances that are hydrophobic ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic ('water-friendly') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves
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Polyvinyl Alcohol
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer. It has the idealized formula [CH2CH(OH)]n. It is used in papermaking, textiles, and a variety of coatings. It is white (colourless) and odorless. It is sometimes supplied as beads or as solutions in water.[2]Contents1 Uses1.1 Fishing2 Preparation 3 Structure and properties 4 Tradenames of Polyvinyl Alcohol 5 Safety 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksUses[edit]Polyvinyl acetals: Polyvinyl acetals are prepared by reacting aldehydes with polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl butyral
Polyvinyl butyral
(PVB) and polyvinyl formal (PVF) are examples of this family of polymers. They are prepared from polyvinyl alcohol by reaction with butyraldehyde and formaldehyde, respectively. Preparation of polyvinyl butyral is the largest use for polyvinyl alcohol in the U.S
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Substituent
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule. The terms substituent, side chain, group, branch, or pendant group are used almost interchangeably to describe branches from a parent structure,[1] though certain distinctions are made in the context of polymer chemistry.[2] In polymers, side chains extend from a backbone structure. In proteins, side chains are attached to the alpha carbon atoms of the amino acid backbone. The suffix -yl is used when naming organic compounds that contain a single bond replacing one hydrogen; -ylidene and -ylidyne are used with double bonds and triple bonds, respectively. In addition, when naming hydrocarbons that contain a substituent, positional numbers are used to indicate which carbon atom the substituent attaches to when such information is needed to distinguish between isomers
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Diuretic
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, that is, the increased production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way. Alternatively, an antidiuretic such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of water in urine.Contents1 Medical uses 2 Types2.1 High ceiling/loop diuretic 2.2 Thiazides 2.3 Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 2.4 Potassium-sparing diuretics 2.5 Calcium-sparing diuretics 2.6 Osmotic diuretics 2.7 Low ceiling diuretics3 Mechanism of action 4 Adverse effects 5 Banned use in sports 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksMedical uses[edit] In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension, influenza, water poisoning, and certain kidney diseases
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Acetamide
Acetamide
Acetamide
(systematic name: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2. It is the simplest amide derived from acetic acid. It finds some use as a plasticizer and as an industrial solvent.[3] The related compound N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) is more widely used, but it is not prepared from acetamide
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Dyeing
Dyeing
Dyeing
is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics.[1] Dyeing
Dyeing
is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. After dyeing, dye molecules have uncut chemical bond with fiber molecules. The temperature and time controlling are two key factors in dyeing. There are mainly two classes of dye, natural and man-made. The primary source of dye, historically, has generally been nature, with the dyes being extracted from animals or plants. Since the mid-19th century, however, humans have produced artificial dyes to achieve a broader range of colors and to render the dyes more stable to resist washing and general use
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Transition Metal
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings:The IUPAC definition[1] defines a transition metal as "an element whose atom has a partially filled d sub-shell, or which can give rise to cations with an incomplete d sub-shell". Many scientists describe a "transition metal" as any element in the d-block of the periodic table, which includes groups 3 to 12 on the periodic table.[2][3] In actual practice, the f-block lanthanide and actinide series are also considered transition metals and are called "inner transition metals". Cotton and Wilkinson[4] expand the brief IUPAC definition (see above) by specifying which elements are included. As well as the elements of groups 4 to 11, they add scandium and yttrium in group 3 which have a partially filled d subshell in the metallic state
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Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium
Sodium
bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite
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Preferred IUPAC Name
In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC
IUPAC
nomenclature. The "preferred IUPAC nomenclature" provides a set of rules for choosing between multiple possibilities in situations where it is important to decide on a unique name. It is intended for use in legal and regulatory situations.[1] Currently, preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
names are written only for part of the organic compounds (see below)
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Systematic Name
A systematic name is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance, out of a specific population or collection. Systematic names are usually part of a nomenclature. A semisystematic name or semitrivial name is a name that has at least one systematic part and at least one trivial part. [1][2] Creating systematic names can be as simple as assigning a prefix or a number to each object (in which case they are a type of numbering scheme), or as complex as encoding the complete structure of the object in the name. Many systems combine some information about the named object with an extra sequence number to make it into a unique identifier. Systematic names often co-exist with earlier common names assigned before the creation of any systematic naming system
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Peracetic Acid
Peracetic acid
Peracetic acid
(also known as peroxyacetic acid, or PAA), is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO3H. This organic peroxide is a colorless liquid with a characteristic acrid odor reminiscent of acetic acid. It can be highly corrosive. Peracetic acid
Peracetic acid
is a weaker acid than the parent acetic acid, with a pKa of 8.2.[2]Contents1 Production 2 Uses2.1 Epoxidation3 Safety 4 See also 5 ReferencesProduction[edit] Peracetic acid
Peracetic acid
is produced industrially by the autoxidation of acetaldehyde:[2]O2 + CH3CHO → CH3CO3HIt forms upon treatment of acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide with a strong acid catalyst:[3]H2O2 + CH3CO2H ⇌ CH3CO3H + H2OAs an alternative, acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride can be used to generate a solution of the acid with lower water content. Peracetic acid
Peracetic acid
is generated in situ by some laundry detergents
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Actinide
The actinide /ˈæktɪnaɪd/ or actinoid /ˈæktɪnɔɪd/ (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.[2][3][4][5] Strictly speaking, both actinium and lawrencium have been labeled as group 3 elements, but both elements are often included in any general discussion of the chemistry of the actinide elements. Actinium
Actinium
is the more often omitted of the two, because its placement as a group 3 element is somewhat more common in texts and for semantic reasons: since "actinide" means "like actinium", it has been argued that actinium cannot logically be an actinide, even though IUPAC acknowledges its inclusion based on common usage.[6] The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. The informal chemical symbol An is used in general discussions of actinide chemistry to refer to any actinide
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Salt
Table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt
Salt
is present in vast quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt
Salt
is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt
Salt
is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation. Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 8,000 years ago, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts; a salt-works in China dates to approximately the same period
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Fatty Acid
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28.[1] Fatty acids are usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. Fatty acids are important dietary sources of fuel for animals because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose
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