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Accipitriformes
Cathartidae Teratornithidae Sagittariidae Pandionidae AccipitridaeThe Accipitriformes
Accipitriformes
are an order that includes most of the diurnal birds of prey: hawks, eagles, vultures, and many others, about 225 species in all
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Eocene
The Eocene
Eocene
( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/[2][3]) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Sexual Maturity
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce. It may be considered synonymous with adulthood,[1] but, in humans, puberty encompasses the process of sexual maturation and adulthood is based on cultural definitions.[1][2] Most multicellular organisms are unable to sexually reproduce at birth (or germination), and depending on the species, it may be days, weeks, or years until their bodies are able to do so. Also, certain cues may cause the organism to become sexually mature. They may be external, such as drought, or internal, such as percentage of body fat (such internal cues are not to be confused with hormones which directly produce sexual maturity). Sexual maturity is brought about by a maturing of the reproductive organs and the production of gametes. It may also be accompanied by a growth spurt or other physical changes which distinguish the immature organism from its adult form
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Reproduction
Reproduction
Reproduction
(or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction
Reproduction
is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual. In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction
is not limited to single-celled organisms. The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists
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Carnivore
A carnivore /ˈkɑːrnɪvɔːr/, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.[1][2] Animals that depend solely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are called obligate carnivores while those that also consume non-animal food are called facultative carnivores.[2] Omnivores also consume both animal and non-animal food, and, apart from the more general definition, there is no clearly defined ratio of plant to animal material that would distinguish a facultative carnivore from an omnivore.[3] A carnivore that sits at the top of the food chain is termed an apex predator. The word "carnivore" is only refers to the mammalian order Carnivora, but this is somewhat misleading
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Claw
A claw is a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniotes (mammals, reptiles, birds). Some invertebrates such as beetles and spiders have somewhat similar fine hooked structures at the end of the leg or tarsus for gripping a surface as the creature walks. Crabs', lobsters' and scorpions' pincers, or more formally, their chelae, are sometimes called claws. A true claw is made of hard protein called keratin. Claws are used to catch and hold prey in carnivorous mammals such as cats and dogs, but may also be used for such purposes as digging, climbing trees, self-defense, and grooming, in those and other species. Similar appendages that are flat and do not come to a sharp point are called nails instead
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Wing
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid. As such, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as an airfoils. A wing's aerodynamic efficiency is expressed as its lift-to-drag ratio. The lift a wing generates at a given speed and angle of attack can be one to two orders of magnitude greater than the total drag on the wing. A high lift-to-drag ratio requires a significantly smaller thrust to propel the wings through the air at sufficient lift. Lifting structures used in water, include various foils, including hydrofoils. Hydrodynamics
Hydrodynamics
is the governing science, rather than aerodynamics
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Nostril
A nostril (or naris /ˈneɪrɪs/, plural nares /ˈneɪriːz/) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. In birds and mammals, they contain branched bones or cartilages called turbinates, whose function is to warm air on inhalation and remove moisture on exhalation. Fish
Fish
do not breathe through their noses, but they do have two small holes used for smelling, which may, indeed, be called nostrils. The Procellariiformes
Procellariiformes
are distinguished from other birds by having tubular extensions of their nostrils. In humans, the nasal cycle is the normal ultradian cycle of each nostril's blood vessels becoming engorged in swelling, then shrinking. The nostrils are separated by the septum. The septum can sometimes be deviated, causing one nostril to appear larger than the other
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Lumpers And Splitters
Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline that has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories. The lumper-splitter problem occurs when there is the need to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature, biological taxa and so on. A "lumper" is an individual who takes a gestalt view of a definition, and assigns examples broadly, assuming that differences are not as important as signature similarities. A "splitter" is an individual who takes precise definitions, and creates new categories to classify samples that differ in key ways.Contents1 Origin of the terms 2 Usage in various fields2.1 Biology 2.2 History 2.3 Software modelling 2.4 Language classification 2.5 Liturgical studies 2.6 Philosophy3 See also 4 References 5 External linksOrigin of the terms[edit] The earliest known use of these terms was by Charles Darwin, in a letter to J. D. Hooker
J. D

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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Falcon
About 37; see text.SynonymsAesalon Lithofalco Tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1766 Hierofalco Cuvier, 1817 Cerchneis Boie, 1826 Hypotriorchis Boie, 1826 Rhynchodon Nitzsch, 1829 Ieracidea Gould, 1838 Hieracidea Strickland, 1841 (unjustified emendation)[verification needed] Gennaia Kaup, 1847 Jerafalco Kaup, 1850 (unjustified emendation) Harpe Bonaparte, 1855 (non Lacepède 1802[verification needed]: preoccupied) Dissodectes Sclater, 1864 Genaïe Heuglin, 1867 (unjustified emendation)[verification needed] Harpa Sharpe, 1874 (non Pallas 1774: preoccupied) Gennadas Heine & Reichenow, 1890[verification needed] (unjustified emendation)[verification needed] Nesierax Oberholser, 1899 Nesihierax Dubois, 1902 (unjustified emendation) Asturaetus De Vis, 1906 (non Asturaetos Brehm 1855: preoccupied) Plioaetus Richmond, 1908 Sushkinia Tugarinov, 1935 (non Martynov 1930: preoccupied) – see belowFalcons (/ˈfɒlkən, ˈfɔːl-, ˈfæl-/) are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which i
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Diurnality
Diurnality
Diurnality
is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night. The common adjective used for daytime activity is "diurnal". The timing of activity by an animal depends on a variety of environmental factors such as the temperature, the ability to gather food by sight, the risk of predation, and the time of year. Diurnality
Diurnality
is a cycle of activity within a twenty-four-hour period; cyclic activities called circadian rhythms are endogenous cycles not dependent on external cues or environmental factors. Animals active at dawn or dusk are crepuscular, those active at night are nocturnal, and animals active at sporadic times during both night and day are cathemeral. Plants that open their flowers during the day are referred to as diurnal, while those that bloom at night are nocturnal
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Order (biology)
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot
Louis Pierre Vieillot (May 10, 1748, Yvetot
Yvetot
– August 24, 1830, Sotteville-lès-Rouen) was a French ornithologist. Vieillot is the author of the first scientific descriptions and Linnaean names of a number of birds, including species he collected himself in the West Indies
West Indies
and North America
North America
and South American species discovered but not formally named by Felix de Azara
Felix de Azara
and his translator Sonnini de Manoncourt. At least 26 of the genera erected by Vieillot are still in use. He was among the first ornithologists to study changes in plumage and one of the first to study live birds.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksBiography[edit] Vieillot was born in Yvetot
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