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Accipitriformes
Sagittariidae Pandionidae Accipitridae
Accipitridae
The ACCIPITRIFORMES are an order that includes most of the diurnal birds of prey : hawks , eagles , vultures , and many others, about 225 species in all. For a long time, the majority view has been to include them with the falcons in the Falconiformes
Falconiformes
, but many authorities have recognized a separate Accipitriformes. As of 2008 , a recent DNA study indicated that falcons are not closely related to the Accipitriformes, being instead more closely related to parrots and passerines . Since then, the split and the placement of the falcons next to the parrots in taxonomic order has been adopted by the American Ornithologists\' Union 's South American Classification Committee (SACC), its North American Classification Committee (NACC), and the International Ornithological Congress (IOC)
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Falcon
About 37; see text. SYNONYMS * Aesalon * Lithofalco * Tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1766 * Hierofalco Cuvier , 1817 * Cerchneis Boie, 1826 * Hypotriorchis Boie, 1826 * Rhynchodon Nitzsch, 1829 * Ieracidea Gould , 1838 * Hieracidea Strickland , 1841 (unjustified emendation) * Gennaia Kaup , 1847 * Jerafalco Kaup , 1850 (unjustified emendation) * Harpe Bonaparte, 1855 (non Lacepède 1802: preoccupied ) * Dissodectes Sclater , 1864 * Genaïe Heuglin , 1867 (unjustified emendation) * Harpa Sharpe , 1874 (non Pallas 1774: preoccupied ) * Gennadas Heine "> (unjustified emendation) * Nesierax Oberholser , 1899 * Nesihierax Dubois, 1902 (unjustified emendation) * Asturaetus De Vis , 1906 (non Asturaetos Brehm 1855: preoccupied) * Plioaetus Richmond , 1908 * Sushkinia Tugarinov, 1935 (non Martynov 1930: preoccupied ) – see belowFALCONS (/ˈfɒlkən, ˈfɔːl-, ˈfæl-/ ) are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species
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DNA
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/ ( listen ); DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses . DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids ; alongside proteins , lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life . Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix . The two DNA
DNA
strands are termed polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides . Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases — cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T) — a sugar called deoxyribose , and a phosphate group
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Lumpers And Splitters
LUMPERS and SPLITTERS are opposing factions in any discipline that has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories . The lumper-splitter problem occurs when there is the need to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature , biological taxa and so on. A "lumper" is an individual who takes a gestalt view of a definition, and assigns examples broadly, assuming that differences are not as important as signature similarities. A "splitter" is an individual who takes precise definitions, and creates new categories to classify samples that differ in key ways
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Diurnality
DIURNALITY is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping , or other inactivity, at night. The common adjective used for daytime activity is "diurnal". The timing of activity by an animal depends on a variety of environmental factors such as the temperature, the ability to gather food by sight, the risk of predation, and the time of year. Diurnality
Diurnality
is a cycle of activity within a twenty-four-hour period; cyclic activities called circadian rhythms are endogenous cycles not dependent on external cues or environmental factors. Animals active at dawn or dusk are crepuscular , those active at night are nocturnal , and animals active at sporadic times during both night and day are cathemeral . Plants that open their flowers during the day are referred to as diurnal, while those that bloom at night are nocturnal
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Eocene
The EOCENE ( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/ ) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene
Eocene
is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C . The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event , which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata
Vertebrata
, which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
, comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa
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Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot
LOUIS PIERRE VIEILLOT (May 10, 1748, Yvetot – August 24, 1830, Sotteville-lès-Rouen
Sotteville-lès-Rouen
) was a French ornithologist . Vieillot is the author of the first scientific descriptions and Linnaean names of a number of birds, including species he collected himself in the West Indies
West Indies
and North America
North America
and South American species discovered but not formally named by Felix de Azara and his translator Sonnini de Manoncourt . At least 26 of the genera erected by Vieillot are still in use. He was among the first ornithologists to study changes in plumage and one of the first to study live birds . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYVieillot was born in Yvetot
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Nostril
A NOSTRIL (or NARIS /ˈneɪrɪs/ , plural nares /ˈneɪriːz/ ) is one of the two channels of the nose , from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. In birds and mammals , they contain branched bones or cartilages called turbinates , whose function is to warm air on inhalation and remove moisture on exhalation. Fish
Fish
do not breathe through their noses, but they do have two small holes used for smelling , which may, indeed, be called nostrils. The Procellariiformes are distinguished from other birds by having tubular extensions of their nostrils. In humans , the nasal cycle is the normal ultradian cycle of each nostril's blood vessels becoming engorged in swelling, then shrinking. The nostrils are separated by the septum
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Wing
A WING is a type of fin that produces lift , while moving through air or some other fluid. As such, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as an airfoils . A wing's aerodynamic efficiency is expressed as its lift-to-drag ratio . The lift a wing generates at a given speed and angle of attack can be one to two orders of magnitude greater than the total drag on the wing . A high lift-to-drag ratio requires a significantly smaller thrust to propel the wings through the air at sufficient lift. Lifting structures used in water, include various foils , including hydrofoils . Hydrodynamics
Hydrodynamics
is the governing science, rather than aerodynamics. Applications of underwater foils occur in hydroplanes , sailboats and submarines
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Sexual Dimorphism
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. The condition occurs in many animals and some plants. Differences may include secondary sex characteristics , size, color, markings, and may also include behavioral differences. These differences may be subtle or exaggerated, and may be subjected to sexual selection. The opposite of dimorphism is monomorphism
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Monogamy
MONOGAMY (/məˈnɒɡəmi/ mə-NOG-ə-mee ) is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime or at any one time (serial monogamy ), as compared to polygyny , polyandry , or polyamory . The term is also applied to the social behavior of some animals, referring to the state of having only one mate at any one time
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Sexual Maturity
SEXUAL MATURITY is the age or stage when an organism can reproduce . It is sometimes considered synonymous with adulthood . In humans , the process of sexual maturation is termed puberty . Most multicellular organisms are unable to sexually reproduce at birth (or germination), and depending on the species, it may be days, weeks, or years until their bodies are able to do so. Also, certain cues may cause the organism to become sexually mature. They may be external, such as drought, or internal, such as percentage of body fat (such internal cues are not to be confused with hormones which directly produce sexual maturity). Sexual maturity is brought about by a maturing of the reproductive organs and the production of gametes . It may also be accompanied by a growth spurt or other physical changes which distinguish the immature organism from its adult form. These are termed secondary sex characteristics , and often represent an increase in sexual dimorphism
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Reproduction
REPRODUCTION (or PROCREATION or BREEDING) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction
Reproduction
is a fundamental feature of all known life ; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual . In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction
is not limited to single-celled organisms . The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes
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Claw
A CLAW is a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniotes (mammals , reptiles , birds ). Some invertebrates such as beetles and spiders have somewhat similar fine hooked structures at the end of the leg or tarsus for gripping a surface as the creature walks. Crabs', lobsters' and scorpions' pincers, or more formally, their chelae , are sometimes called claws. A true claw is made of hard protein called keratin . Claws are used to catch and hold prey in carnivorous mammals such as cats and dogs, but may also be used for such purposes as digging, climbing trees, self-defense, and grooming, in those and other species. Similar appendages that are flat and do not come to a sharp point are called nails instead. Claw-like projections that do not form at the end of digits, but spring from other parts of the foot are properly named spurs
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