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Accipitridae
The ACCIPITRIDAE, one of the four families within the order Accipitriformes (the others being Cathartidae , Pandionidae and Sagittariidae ), are a family of small to large birds with strongly hooked bills and variable morphology based on diet. They feed on a range of prey items from insects to medium-sized mammals , with a number feeding on carrion and a few feeding on fruit. The Accipitridae have a cosmopolitan distribution , being found on all the world's continents (except Antarctica
Antarctica
) and a number of oceanic island groups. Some species are migratory . Many well-known birds, such as hawks , eagles , kites , harriers and Old World vultures are included in this group. The osprey is usually placed in a separate family (Pandionidae), as is the secretary bird (Sagittariidae), and the New World vultures are also usually now regarded as a separate family or order
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Subfamily
In biological classification , a SUBFAMILY ( Latin
Latin
: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank , next below family but more inclusive than genus . Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae", and zoological names with "-inae". SEE ALSO * International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants * International Code of Zoological Nomenclature * Rank (botany) * Rank (zoology) SOURCES * ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG
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Karyotype
A KARYOTYPE is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell . The term is also used for the complete set of chromosomes in a species or in an individual organism and for a test that detects this complement or measures the number. Karyotypes describe the chromosome count of an organism and what these chromosomes look like under a light microscope . Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres , banding pattern, any differences between the sex chromosomes , and any other physical characteristics. The preparation and study of karyotypes is part of cytogenetics . Karyogram of human male using Giemsa staining The study of whole sets of chromosomes is sometimes known as karyology. The chromosomes are depicted (by rearranging a photomicrograph) in a standard format known as a karyogram or idiogram: in pairs, ordered by size and position of centromere for chromosomes of the same size
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Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot
LOUIS PIERRE VIEILLOT (May 10, 1748, Yvetot – August 24, 1830, Sotteville-lès-Rouen
Sotteville-lès-Rouen
) was a French ornithologist . Vieillot is the author of the first scientific descriptions and Linnaean names of a number of birds, including species he collected himself in the West Indies
West Indies
and North America
North America
and South American species discovered but not formally named by Felix de Azara and his translator Sonnini de Manoncourt . At least 26 of the genera erected by Vieillot are still in use. He was among the first ornithologists to study changes in plumage and one of the first to study live birds . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYVieillot was born in Yvetot
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Monophyletic
In cladistics , a MONOPHYLETIC group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade , meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies ). The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a MONOPHYLY, synonymous with the uncommon term HOLOPHYLY. Monophyly is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly , as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. Thus, a paraphyletic group is 'nearly' monophyletic (hence the prefix 'para', meaning 'near' or 'alongside'.) A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects); the features by which the group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion
Cambrian explosion
, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Pandionidae
PANDION is a genus of bird of prey in the family PANDIONIDAE. Most taxonomic authorities lump both of the following together, calling it osprey , and making the genus monotypic
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Eocene
The EOCENE ( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/ ) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene
Eocene
is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C . The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event , which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Bird Migration
BIRD MIGRATION is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway , between breeding and wintering grounds. Many species of bird migrate. Migration carries high costs in predation and mortality, including from hunting by humans, and is driven primarily by availability of food. It occurs mainly in the northern hemisphere , where birds are funnelled on to specific routes by natural barriers such as the Mediterranean Sea or the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. Historically, migration has been recorded as much as 3,000 years ago by Ancient Greek authors including Homer
Homer
and Aristotle
Aristotle
, and in the Book of Job , for species such as storks , turtle doves , and swallows . More recently, Johannes Leche began recording dates of arrivals of spring migrants in Finland in 1749, and scientific studies have used techniques including bird ringing and satellite tracking
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Mammals
MAMMALS are any vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪli.ə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the biggest animals on the planet, the great whales . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Cosmopolitan Distribution
In biogeography , a taxon is said to have a COSMOPOLITAN DISTRIBUTION if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats . Such a taxon is said to exhibit cosmopolitanism or cosmopolitism. The opposite extreme is endemism . CONTENTS * 1 Related terms and concepts * 2 Aspects and degrees * 3 Oceanic and terrestrial * 4 Ecological delimitation * 5 Regional and temporal variation in populations * 6 Ancient and modern * 7 See also * 8 References RELATED TERMS AND CONCEPTSThe term PANDEMISM also is in use, but not all authors are consistent in the sense in which they use the term; some speak of pandemism mainly in referring to diseases and pandemics , and some as a term intermediate between endemism and cosmopolitanism, in effect regarding pandemism as SUBCOSMOPOLITANISM. This means near cosmopolitanism, but with major gaps in the distribution , say, complete absence from Australia
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Antarctica
ANTARCTICA (UK English /ænˈtɑːktɪkə/ or /ænˈtɑːtɪkə/ , US English /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ ( listen )) is Earth
Earth
's southernmost continent . It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic
Antarctic
region of the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
, almost entirely south of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle , and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean . At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica
Antarctica
is nearly twice the size of Australia
Australia
. About 98% of Antarctica
Antarctica
is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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