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Absolute Monarchy
Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy,[1][2] is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.[3] These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies
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Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty
Ottoman Dynasty
in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine
Byzantine
frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era.[1] Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords and vassals to maintain control over their realm
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Unification Of Germany
The unification of Germany
Germany
into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors
Hall of Mirrors
at the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
in France. Princes of the German states, excluding Austria, gathered there to proclaim William I of Prussia
Prussia
as German Emperor after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War. Unofficially, the de facto transition of most of the German-speaking populations into a federated organization of states had been developing for some time through alliances formal and informal between princely rulers, but in fits and starts
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Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
(/hɒbz/; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
of Malmesbury,[2] was an English philosopher who is con
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Conservatism
Conservatism
Conservatism
is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, human imperfection, organic society, hierarchy and authority and property rights.[1] Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as monarchy, religion, parliamentary government and property rights with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity[2] while the more extreme elements called reactionaries oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were".[3][4] The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand[5] during the period of Bourbon restoration
Bourbon restoration
that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution
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Legalism (Chinese Philosophy)
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t eFajiia (Chinese: 法家; pinyin: Fǎjiā)[2] or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.[3] Roughly meaning "house of Fa" (administrative "methods" or "standards"),[4] the "school" (term) represents some several branches of realistic statesmen[5] or "men of methods" (fashu zishi)[6] foundational for the traditional Chinese bureaucratic empire.[7] Compared with Machiavelli,[8] it has often been considered in the Western world as akin to the Realpolitikal thought of
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Liberal Wars
Liberal victory, Concession of Evoramonte:Constitutional monarchy is restored. Dom Miguel renounces all his claims to the throne and goes into exile.Belligerents Liberals Supported by: United Kingdom Brazil France
France
(from 1830) Belgian volunteers (from 1832)[1] Spain
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Italian Unification
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t e Italian unification
Italian unification
(Italian: Unità d'Italia [uniˈta ddiˈtaːlja]), or the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
([risordʒiˈmento], meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in the 19th century
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Meiji Restoration
The Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
(明治維新, Meiji Ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan.[2] The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new Emperor in the Charter Oath
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5 October 1910 Revolution
Republican victoryAbolition of the monarchy and proclamation of the republic. King Manuel II is exiled and flees to Britain.Belligerents Kingdom of Portugal Portuguese republicansCommanders and leaders King Manuel II Teixeira de Sousa Paiva Couceiro Teófilo Braga Afonso Costa Manuel de Arriaga José RelvasStrengthAbout 7,000 men About 2,000 revolutionaries 3 cruisersCasualties and lossesAt least 37 dead and dozens wounded, with at least 14 of them dying in the following days.The establishment of the Portuguese Republic was the result of a coup d'état organised by the Portuguese Republican Party which, on 5 October 1910, deposed the constitutional monarchy and established a republican regime in Portugal
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Proclamation Of The Republic (Brazil)
The Proclamation of the Republic (Portuguese: Proclamação da República do Brasil) was a military coup d'état that established the First Brazilian Republic
First Brazilian Republic
on November 15, 1889
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Xinhai Revolution
Chinese Revolutionary Alliance victory Abdication
Abdication
of Puyi Fall of the Qing dynasty End of Imperial China Establishment of the Republic of China Destabilization of ChinaBelligerents Qing dynasty Provisional Government of the Republic of China Hubei
Hubei
Military Government of the Republic of China Tongmenghui Gelaohui Tiandihui Various other revolutionary groups and forces Regional officials and warlordsCommanders and leaders Empress Dowager Longyu Prince-Regent Zaifeng Prime Minister Yuan Shikai Feng Guozhang Ma Anliang Duan Qirui Yang Zengxin Ma Qi Various other nobles of the Qing dynasty Prov. President Sun Yat-sen General Huang Xing Song Jiaoren Chen Qimei Prov. Vice President Li Yuanhong Prov
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Spanish Transition To Democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy
Spanish transition to democracy
(Spanish: Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain
Spain
as the Transition (Spanish: La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Spanish: Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. However, historians disagree on the exact date the transition completed:[1] some say it ended after the 1977 general election; while others place it later, when the 1978 Constitution was approved. Others suggest it ended with the failure of the 1981 coup d'êtat attempt
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Philosopher King
According to Plato, a philosopher king is a ruler who possesses both a love of knowledge, as well as intelligence, reliability, and a willingness to live a simple life. Such are the rulers of his utopian city Kallipolis
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Aristocracy
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.[1] The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best".[2] The term is synonymous with hereditary government, and hereditary succession is its primary philosophy, after which the hereditary monarch appoints officers as they see fit. At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece, the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy, rule by an individual
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Italian Institutional Referendum, 1946
An institutional referendum (referendum istituzionale, or referendum sulla forma istituzionale dello Stato, in Italian)[1][2][3] was held in Italy
Italy
on 2 June 1946,[4] a key event of Italian contemporary history. Until 1946, Italy
Italy
was a kingdom ruled by the House of Savoy, kings of Italy
Italy
since the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
and previously rulers of Savoy. However, Benito Mussolini, enjoying the support of the reigning monarch, imposed fascism after the 28 October 1922 March on Rome, eventually engaging Italy
Italy
in World War II
World War II
alongside Nazi Germany. In 1946, Italy
Italy
became a republic after the results of a popular referendum. Monarchists had suspicions of fraud, but were never able to prove these
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