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Above Mean Sea Level
METRES ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL (MAMSL) or simply METRES ABOVE SEA LEVEL (MASL or M A.S.L.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level . Mean sea levels are affected by climate change and other factors and change over time. For this and other reasons, recorded measurements of elevation above sea level might differ from the actual elevation of a given location over sea level at a given moment. CONTENTS * 1 Uses * 2 How it is determined * 3 Other measurement systems * 4 Abbreviations * 5 See also * 6 References USES Metres above sea level is the standard measurement of the elevation or altitude of: * Geographic locations such as towns , mountains and other landmarks . * The top of buildings and other structures . * Flying objects such as airplanes or helicopters .HOW IT IS DETERMINEDThe elevation or altitude in metres above sea level of a location, object, or point can be determined in a number of ways. The most common include: * Global Positioning System (GPS), which triangulates a location in reference to multiple satellites . * Altimeters . They typically measure atmospheric pressure , which decreases as altitude increases. * Aerial photography . * Surveying .Accurate measurement of historical mean sea levels is complex
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Altitude
ALTITUDE or HEIGHT (sometimes known as DEPTH) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, and many more). As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context. Although the term altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location, in geography the term elevation is often preferred for this usage. Vertical distance measurements in the "down" direction are commonly referred to as depth. CONTENTS * 1 In aviation * 2 In atmospheric studies * 2.1 Atmospheric regions * 2.2 High altitude and low pressure * 2.3 Temperature profile * 3 Effects on organisms * 3.1 Humans * 3.1.1 Athletes * 3.2 Other organisms * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links IN AVIATION See also: Sea level § Aviation Vertical distance comparison In aviation, the term altitude can have several meanings, and is always qualified by explicitly adding a modifier (e.g. "true altitude"), or implicitly through the context of the communication. Parties exchanging altitude information must be clear which definition is being used. Aviation altitude is measured using either mean sea level (MSL) or local ground level (above ground level, or AGL) as the reference datum
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Non-SI Units Mentioned In The SI
This is a list of units that are not defined as part of the International System of Units (SI), but are otherwise mentioned in the SI, because either the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) accepts their use as being multiples or submultiples of SI-units, they have important contemporary application worldwide, or are otherwise commonly encountered worldwide
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Metric System
The METRIC SYSTEM is an internationally agreed decimal system of measurement . It was originally based on the _mètre des Archives _ and the _kilogramme des Archives _ introduced by the French First Republic in 1799, but over the years the definitions of the metre and the kilogram have been refined, and the metric system has been extended to incorporate many more units. Although a number of variants of the metric system emerged in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the term is now often used as a synonym for "SI" or the " International System of Units "—the official system of measurement in almost every country in the world. The metric system has been officially sanctioned for use in the United States since 1866, but the U.S. remains the only industrialised country that has not fully adopted the metric system as its official system of measurement, although, in 1988, the United States Congress passed the Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act , which designates "the metric system of measurement as the preferred system of weights and measures for U.S. trade and commerce". Among many other things, the act requires federal agencies to use metric measurements in nearly all of its activities, although there are still some exceptions allowing traditional linear units to be used in documents intended for consumers
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Measurement
MEASUREMENT is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. The scope and application of a measurement is dependent on the context and discipline. In the natural sciences and engineering , measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, which is consistent with the guidelines of the _International vocabulary of metrology_ published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures . However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioral sciences , measurements can have multiple levels , which would include nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. Measurement
Measurement
is a cornerstone of trade , science , technology , and quantitative research in many disciplines. Historically, many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields. Often these were achieved by local agreements between trading partners or collaborators. Since the 18th century, developments progressed towards unifying, widely accepted standards that resulted in the modern International System of Units (SI). This system reduces all physical measurements to a mathematical combination of seven base units. The science of measurement is pursued in the field of metrology
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Metres
The METRE (international spelling ) or METER (American spelling ) (from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in the International System of Units (SI). The SI unit symbol is M. The metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299 792 458 seconds . The metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole . In 1799, it was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar (the actual bar used was changed in 1889). In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86 . In 1983, the current definition was adopted. The imperial inch is defined as 0.0254 metres (2.54 centimetres or 25.4 millimetres). One metre is about  3 3⁄8 inches longer than a yard , i.e. about  39 3⁄8 inches. CONTENTS * 1 Spelling * 2 Etymology * 3 History of definition * 3.1 Meridional definition * 3.2 International prototype metre bar * 3.3 Wavelength definition * 3.4 Speed of light definition * 3.5 Timeline * 4 SI prefixed forms of metre * 5 Equivalents in other units * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading SPELLING_Metre_ is the standard spelling of the metric unit for length in nearly all English-speaking nations except the United States and the Philippines, which use _meter_
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Elevation
The ELEVATION of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid , a mathematical model of the Earth\'s sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic system, vertical datum ). Elevation, or GEOMETRIC HEIGHT, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height is used for points above the surface, such as an aircraft in flight or a spacecraft in orbit, and depth is used for points below the surface. Elevation
Elevation
is not to be confused with the distance from the center of the Earth; due to equatorial bulge , the summits of Mt. Everest and Chimborazo have, respectively, the largest elevation and the largest geocentric distance. CONTENTS * 1 Maps and GIS * 2 Global 1-kilometer map * 3 Hypsography * 4 Temperature * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links MAPS AND GIS Part of a topographic map of Haleakala ( Hawaii
Hawaii
), showing elevation. Landsat
Landsat
Image over SRTM Elevation
Elevation
by NASA
NASA
, showing the Cape Peninsula
Cape Peninsula
and Cape of Good Hope , South Africa
South Africa
in the foreground
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Sea Level
MEAN SEA LEVEL (MSL) (abbreviated simply SEA LEVEL) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth\'s oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation , or, in aviation , as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels . A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales . The careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change , and sea level rise has been widely quoted as evidence of ongoing global warming . The term _above sea level_ generally refers to above mean sea level (AMSL)
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Climate Change
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather (category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone (category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate (category) Climate change (category) Global warming (category) · (portal) * v * t * e CLIMATE CHANGE is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics , and volcanic eruptions . Certain human activities have been identified as primary causes of ongoing climate change, often referred to as _global warming _. Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations and theoretical models
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Geographic Location
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geographic(al) latitude and longitude * 3 Measuring height using datums * 3.1 Complexity of the problem * 3.2 Common baselines * 3.3 Datums * 4 Map projection * 4.1 UTM and UPS systems * 4.2 Stereographic coordinate system * 5 Cartesian coordinates * 5.1 Earth-centered, earth-fixed * 5.2 Local east, north, up (ENU) coordinates * 5.3 Local north, east, down (NED) coordinates * 6 Expressing latitude and longitude as linear units * 7 Geostationary coordinates * 8 On other celestial bodies * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links HISTORY Main articles: History of geodesy , history of longitude , and history of prime meridians The invention of a geographic coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene , who composed his now-lost _ Geography _ at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC
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Town
A TOWN is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city . The size definition for what constitutes a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world
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Mountain
A MOUNTAIN is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill . Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism . These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers , weather conditions , and glaciers . A few mountains are isolated summits , but most occur in huge mountain ranges . High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level . These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals . Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing . The highest mountain on Earth
Earth
is Mount Everest
Mount Everest
in the Himalayas
Himalayas
of Asia
Asia
, whose summit is 8,850 m (29,035 ft) above mean sea level . The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System
Solar System
is Olympus Mons on Mars
Mars
at 21,171 m (69,459 ft)
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Landmark
A LANDMARK is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation , a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can also be applied to smaller structures or features, that have become local or national symbols . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Types * 2.1 Natural * 2.2 Man made * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ETYMOLOGY The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
, a famous landmark of New York City
New York City
and United States
United States
, greets the newly arrived immigrants, located near Ellis Island where millions of immigrants first touched U.S. soil. In old English the word landmearc (from land + mearc (mark)) was used to describe an "object set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, estate, etc.". Starting from approx. 1560, this understanding of landmark was replaced by a more general one. A landmark became a "conspicuous object in a landscape". A landmark literally meant a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area
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Building
A BUILDING or EDIFICE is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory . Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term _building_ compare the list of nonbuilding structures . Buildings serve several needs of society – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) and the _outside_ (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful). Ever since the first cave paintings , buildings have also become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has also become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings
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Nonbuilding Structure
A NONBUILDING STRUCTURE, also referred to simply as a STRUCTURE, refers to any body or system of connected parts used to support a load that was not designed for continuous human occupancy . The term is used by architects , structural engineers , and mechanical engineers to distinctly identify built structures that are not buildings
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