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Abhira Tribe
The Abhira tribe were a people mentioned in ancient Indian epics and scriptures as early as the Vedas.[1] A historical people of the same name are mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.Contents1 History1.1 Connection to Ahir2 Rule of the Konkan 3 Abhiras of Rajputana 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya says that the Abhiras are mentioned in the first-century work of classical antiquity, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. He considers them to be a race rather than a tribe.[2] Scholars such as Ramaprasad Chanda
Ramaprasad Chanda
believe that they were Indo-Aryan peoples.[3][need quotation to verify] but others, such as Romila Thapar, believe them to have been indigenous.[4] The Puranic Abhiras occupied the territories of Herat; they are invariably juxtaposed with the Kalatoyakas and Haritas, the peoples of Afghanistan.[5] A
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Vedas
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
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Kurukshetra War
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Dineshchandra Sircar
Dineshchandra Sircar (1907–1985; also known as D. C. Sircar or D.C. Sarkar) was an epigraphist, historian, numismatist and folklorist, known particularly for his work deciphering inscriptions in India
India
and Bangladesh. He was the Chief Epigraphist, Archaeological Survey of India
India
(1949 – 1962), Carmichael Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, University of Calcutta, (1962–1972) and the General President of the Indian History Congress
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Kandahar
Kandahār (/ˈkændəˌhɑːr/) or Qandahār (Pashto: کندهار‎; Dari: قندهار‎; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.[1] Formerly called Alexandria Arachosia, the city is named after Alexander
Alexander
the Great, who founded it in 329 BC around an ancient Arachosian town.[2][3] Kandahar
Kandahar
is located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of 1,010 m (3,310 ft). It is the capital of Kandahar
Kandahar
Province, and also the center of the larger cultural region called Loy Kandahar. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak
Mirwais Hotak
made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar
Kandahar
into the capital of the Hotak dynasty
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Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rajasthan
(/ˈrɑːdʒəstæn/ Hindustani pronunciation: [raːdʒəsˈt̪ʰaːn] ( listen); literally, "Land of Kings")[4] is India's largest state by area (342,239 square kilometres (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4% of India's total area). It is located on the north western side of the India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the " Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Desert" and "Great Indian Desert") and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh
Sindh
to the west, along the Sutlej- Indus
Indus
river valley
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Jodhpur
Jodhpur
Jodhpur
(/ˈdʒɒdpʊər/; pronounced [ˈd͡ʒoːd̪ʱpʊr]  Listen (help·info)) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of a princely state of the same name. The capital of the kingdom was known as Marwar. Jodhpur
Jodhpur
is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces, forts and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar Desert. The city is known as the "Sun City" for the bright and sunny weather it enjoys all the year round
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Hindu Calendar
Hindu
Hindu
calendar is a collective term for the various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in India. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping, but differ in their relative emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle and the names of months and when they consider the New Year to start.[1] Of the various regional calendars, the most studied and known Hindu
Hindu
calendars are the Vikrami calendar (Bikrami) found in northern, western and central regions of the Indian subcontinent, Tamil calendar found in the south, and the Bengali calendar found in the east – all of which emphasize the lunar cycle, their new year starts in spring, with their heritage dating back to 1st millennium BCE
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Mleccha
Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit mleccha, meaning "non-Vedic", "barbarian"), also spelled Mlechchha or Maleccha, is a name, which referred to people of foreign extraction in ancient India. Mleccha was used by the ancient Indians originally to indicate the uncouth and incomprehensible speech of foreigners and then extended to their unfamiliar behaviour, and also used as a derogatory term in the sense of "impure and/or "inferior" people. In ancient India, this term was also applied by the ancient Indian kingdoms to foreigners. The word Mleccha was commonly used for 'outer barbarians of whatever race or colour'.[1][2] The Indians referred to all alien cultures that were less civilized in ancient times as 'Mlechcha'[3] or barbarians
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Saurashtra (region)
Saurashtra, also known as Sorath[1], is a peninsular region of Gujarat, India, located on the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
coast. It covers about a third of Gujarat
Gujarat
state, notably 11 districts of Gujarat, including Rajkot
Rajkot
District.Contents1 Location 2 Districts 3 History3.1 Gir 3.2 Saurashtra State4 Language 5 Postage stamps 6 Natural resources 7 Notes and references 8 Sources and external linksLocation[edit] Saurashtra peninsula is bound on the south and south-west by the Arabian sea, on the north-west by the Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch
and on the east by the Gulf of Khambhat
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Malwa
Malwa
Malwa
is a historical region of west-central India
India
occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa
Malwa
Plateau
Plateau
generally refers to the volcanic upland north of the Vindhya Range. Politically and administratively, the historical Malwa
Malwa
region includes districts of central part of western Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan. The definition of Malwa
Malwa
is sometimes extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas. The Malwa
Malwa
region had been a separate political unit from the time of the ancient Malava Kingdom
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Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(/mɑːhəˈrɑːʃtrə/; Marathi: [məharaːʂʈrə] ( listen), abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India
India
and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area. Spread over 307,713 km2 (118,809 sq mi), it is bordered by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west and the Indian states of Karnataka, Telangana, Goa, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. It is also the world's second-most populous subnational entity
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Satavahana Dynasty
The Satavahanas (IAST: Sātavāhana), also referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region. Most modern scholars believe that the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule began in the first century BCE and lasted until the second century CE, although some assign the beginning of their rule to as early as the 3rd century BCE. The Satavahana
Satavahana
kingdom mainly comprised the present-day Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Maharashtra. At different times, their rule extended to parts of modern Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka. The dynasty had different capital cities at different times, including Pratishthana
Pratishthana
(Paithan) and Amaravati (Dharanikota). The origin of the dynasty is uncertain, but according to the Puranas, their first king overthrew the Kanva dynasty
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Western Satraps
The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas (35–405 CE) were Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
(Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India
India
(Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
states). The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
were contemporaneous with the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and were possibly their overlords, and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in Central India
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Maratha
The Maratha
Maratha
(IPA: [ˈˈməraʈʰa"]; IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "Marathas are people of India, famed in history as yeoman warriors and champions of Hinduism"[1][note 1]. The Maratha
Maratha
group of castes is a largely rural class of peasant cultivators, landowners, and soldiers
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Ishwarsena
Ishwarsena was the founder of the Abhira dynasty. He and his descendants whose names do not occur in the Puranas seem to have ruled over a large territory in deccan.[1] He took the title of Rajan and an era was named after him. His descendants proceeded to rule for nine generations.Contents1 Epigraphics 2 Kalchuri-chedi era 3 Numismatics 4 See also 5 ReferencesEpigraphics[edit] A number of feudatories of the Abhiras ruled in various parts of Maharashtra. One such dynasty founded by Ishwarsena is known from an inscription in cave XVII at Ajanta which mentions Ashmaka in verse 10.[2][3] Kalchuri-chedi era[edit] Ishwarsena started an era which later became known as the Kalachuri-Chedi era.[1] Numismatics[edit] Coins of Ishwarsena are dated only in the first and second years of his reign and are found only in Saurashtra and Southern Rajputana.[4][5] See also[edit]Ahirs MaharashtraReferences[edit]^ a b Arun Kumar Sharma (2004). Heritage of Tansa Valley
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