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Abhayagiri Dagaba
Abhayagiri Vihāra was a major monastery site of Mahayana, Theravada and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
that was situated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. It is one of the most extensive ruins in the world and one of the most sacred Buddhist
Buddhist
pilgrimage cities in the nation. Historically it was a great monastic centre as well as a royal capital, with magnificent monasteries rising to many stories, roofed with gilt bronze or tiles of burnt clay glazed in brilliant colors. To the north of the city, encircled by great walls and containing elaborate bathing ponds, carved balustrades and moonstones, stood "Abhayagiri", one of seventeen such religious units in Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
and the largest of its five major viharas. One of the focal points of the complex is an ancient stupa, the Abhayagiri Dagaba
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Sangharaja
Sangharaja (Pāli: sangha religious community + raja ruler, king, or prince) is the title given in many Theravada Buddhist countries to a senior monk who is the titular head either of a monastic fraternity (nikaya), or of the Sangha throughout the country. This term is often rendered in English as 'Patriarch' or 'Supreme Patriarch'.Contents1 Overview 2 Sangharaja in Burma 3 Sangharaja in Sri Lanka 4 Sangharaja in Cambodia 5 Sangharaja (Sangkharat) in Thailand 6 Modern sangharajas 7 See also 8 Notes 9 ReferencesOverview[edit] The position of sangharaja has been assigned according to various methods in different countries and time periods. In some cases, the sangharaja is determined by absolute monastic seniority; the sangharaja is the monk who has spent the most rains retreats (vassa) as a monk
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Liu Song Dynasty
 MyanmarHistory of ChinaANCIENTNeolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BCE Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
c. 1600 – c. 1046 BCE Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
c
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Gajabahu I
Gajabahu I (lit. 'Elephant-Arm'), also known as Gajabahuka Gamani (c. 114 – 136 CE) was a Sinhalese king of Rajarata
Rajarata
in Sri Lanka. He is renowned for his religious benefactions, extensive involvement in south Indian politics, and for possibly introducing the cult of the goddess Pattini
Pattini
to Sri Lanka. The primary source for his reign is the Mahavamsa, though he is also the only early Sri Lankan king (along with Elara) to be extensively mentioned in the Chera Cilappatikaram (also spelled Silapathikaram).[1][2]Contents1 Life and Religion 2 Guest 3 Significance 4 Trade 5 Popular culture 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External linksLife and Religion[edit] Next to nothing is known about Gajabahu's youth, except that he was son of Vankanasika Tissa (reigned 110-113), king of Rajarata
Rajarata
from Anuradhapura, and his consort Mahamatta
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Mahasena
Mahasena, also known in some records as Mahasen, was a king of Sri Lanka who ruled the country from 277 to 304 AD. He started the construction of large tanks or reservoirs in Sri Lanka,[1] and built sixteen such tanks.[2] After becoming king, Mahasen discriminated against Theravada Buddhists in the country, and destroyed several temples including Mahavihara, the main Theravada temple, before his chief minister led him to realise his mistakes.[3] The Jethavana stupa was also built by Mahasen. His countrymen regarded him as a god or deity after the construction of the Minneriya tank, and he was named Minneri Deviyo (God of Minneriya).Contents1 Discrimination against Theravada Buddhism 2 Constructions 3 Relations with the countrymen 4 See also 5 ReferencesDiscrimination against Theravada Buddhism[edit] Mahasen was the younger son of King Gotabaya, who ruled the country from 253 to 266
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Faxian
Faxian
Faxian
(traditional Chinese: 法顯; simplified Chinese: 法显; pinyin: Fǎxiǎn; 337 – c. 422) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in what are now Xinjiang, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
between 399-412 to acquire Buddhist texts. His journey is described in his important travelogue, A Record of Buddhist Kingdoms, Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Xian of his Travels in India and Ceylon in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Other transliterations of his name include Fa-Hien, Fa-hian, and Fa-hsien.Contents1 Biography 2 Translation of Faxian's work 3 Works 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksBiography[edit] Faxian
Faxian
visited India
India
in the early fifth century
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Dhamma
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Java
Java
Java
(Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese: ᮏᮝ) is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south and the Java Sea
Java Sea
on the north. With a population of over 141 million (Java only) or 145 million (including the inhabitants of its surrounding islands), Java
Java
is the home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most populous island.[1] The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java
Java
was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s
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Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir
is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley
Kashmir Valley
between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range
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Bhikkhuni
A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism. Male monastics are called bhikkhus. Both bhikkhunis and bhikkhus live by the Vinaya, a set of rules. Until recently, the lineages of female monastics only remained in Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
and thus are prevalent in countries such as Korea, Vietnam, China, and Taiwan
Taiwan
but a few women have taken the full monastic vows in the Theravada
Theravada
and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
schools over the last decade. In Buddhism, women are as capable of reaching nirvana as men. According to Buddhist scriptures, the order of bhikkhunis was first created by the Buddha
Buddha
at the specific request of his aunt and foster-mother Mahapajapati Gotami, who became the first ordained bhikkhuni
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Upasampada
Upasampadā (Pali) literally denotes "approaching or nearing the ascetic tradition." In more common parlance it specifically refers to the rite and ritual of ascetic vetting (ordination) by which a candidate, if deemed acceptable, enters the community as upasampadān (ordained) and authorised to undertake ascetic life (see Rhys Davids & Stede, 1921-25, p. 147). According to a number of related traditions, aspirants under 20 years of age are not eligible for upasampadā. See also[edit]Pabbajja: "going forth," entering the condition of mendicancy. Bhikkhu, BhikkhuniNotes[edit]Sources[edit]Encyclopædia Britannica (2007). Retrieved 26 Sept 2007 from "Encyclopædia Britannica Online"; "Upasampada" Rhys Davids, T.W. Stede, William (1921-1925). The Pali
Pali
Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
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Nanjing
Nanjing
Nanjing
( listen), formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin,[3] is the capital of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in t
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Vajrayāna
New branches:Blue Lotus AssemblyGateway of the Hidden FlowerNew Kadampa BuddhismShambhala BuddhismTrue Awakening TraditionHistoryTantrismMahasiddhaSahajaPursuitBuddhahood BodhisattvaKalachakraPracticesGeneration stage Completion stagePhowaTantric techniques: Fourfold division:KriyayogaCharyayogaYogatantraAnuttarayogatantraTwofold division:Inner TantrasOuter TantrasThought forms and visualisation:MandalaMantraMudraThangkaYantraYoga: Deity
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Samadhi Statue
The Samadhi
Samadhi
Statue is a statue situated at Mahamevnāwa Park in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. The Buddha is depicted in the position of the Dhyana Mudra, the posture of meditation associated with his first Enlightenment. Whether the Buddha's Enlightenment was the experience technically called samadhi, or some other phenomenon, may depend upon the philosophical allegiance of the believer. In the Dhyana Mudra
Mudra
the Buddha sits cross-legged with his upturned palms placed one over the other on his lap. This position is universally known throughout the Buddhist world, and this statue is therefore one of the most typical pieces of Buddhist sculpture
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Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: xuánzàng; Wade–Giles: Hsüan-tsang; Mandarin: [ɕɥɛ̌ntsâŋ]; fl. c. 602–664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India
India
in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
and Indian Buddhism
Buddhism
during the early Tang dynasty.[1][2] Born in what is now Henan
Henan
province around 602, from boyhood he took to reading religious books, including the Chinese classics and the writings of ancient sages. While residing in the city of Luoyang
Luoyang
(in Henan
Henan
in Central China), Xuanzang
Xuanzang
was ordained as a śrāmaṇera (novice monk) at the age of thirteen
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Hinayana
"Hīnayāna" (/ˌhiːnəˈjɑːnə/) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term literally meaning the "inferior vehicle".[1][2] Tibetan teachers translate it "smaller vehicle".[3] The term is applied to the Śrāvakayāna, the Buddhist path followed by a śrāvaka who wishes to become an arhat. This pejorative term appeared around the first or second century. Hīnayāna is often contrasted with Mahāyāna, which means the "great vehicle". The term was widely used in the past by Western scholars to cover "the earliest system of Buddhist doctrine", as the Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary put it.[4] However, Buddhist scholarship uses the term Nikaya
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