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Aberdeen
ABERDEEN (/æbərˈdiːn/ ( listen ); Scots : Aiberdeen, listen (help ·info ); Scottish Gaelic : Obar Dheathain ; Latin : Aberdonia) is Scotland
Scotland
's third most populous city , one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
's 37th most populous built-up area , with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and 229,800 for the local authority area. Nicknames include the Granite City, the Grey City and the Silver City with the Golden Sands. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, other nicknames have been the Oil Capital of the World or the Energy Capital of the World
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City Proper
A CITY PROPER is the area contained within city limits . A city proper is not limited to a city ; it can describe the complete area of any locality that fits the definition. The United Nations defines the term as "the single political jurisdiction which contains the historical city centre." City
City
proper is one of the three basic concepts used to define urban areas and populations. The other two are urban agglomeration , and the metropolitan area . In some countries, city limits that act as the demarcation for the city proper are drawn very wide, in some very narrow. This can be cause for recurring controversy
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British Summer Time
During BRITISH SUMMER TIME (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC +0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. BST begins at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday of March and ends at 01:00 GMT (02:00 BST) on the last Sunday of October. Since 22 October 1995 the starting and finishing times of daylight saving time across the European Union
European Union
have been aligned – for instance Central European Summer Time begins and ends on the same Sundays at exactly the same time (that is, 02:00 CET , which is 01:00 GMT). Between 1972 and 1995, BST began and ended at 02:00 GMT on the third Sunday in March (or second Sunday when Easter fell on the third) and fourth Sunday in October
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UTC+1
UTC+01:00 is a time offset that adds 1 hour to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This time is used in: * Central European Time
Central European Time
* West Africa Time
West Africa Time
* Western European Summer Time * British Summer Time
British Summer Time
* Irish Standard Time * Romance Standard Time (Microsoft Windows Control panel) * Swatch Internet Time
Swatch Internet Time
* EVE Online
EVE Online
In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-08T12:06:10+01:00
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UTC±0
UTC±00:00 is the following time: * Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC), the basis for the world's civil time. * Western European Time
Western European Time
(Ireland ,
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Urban Area
An URBAN AREA is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment . Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities , towns , conurbations or suburbs . In urbanism , the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment . The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning , which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources leads to human impact on the environment . The world's urban population in 1950 of just 746 million has increased to 3.9 billion in the decades since. In 2009, the number of people living in urban areas (3.42 billion) surpassed the number living in rural areas (3.41 billion) and since then the world has become more urban than rural
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Metropolitan Area
A METROPOLITAN AREA, sometimes referred to as a METRO AREA or COMMUTER BELT, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities : neighborhoods , townships , boroughs , cities , towns , exurbs , suburbs , counties , districts , states , and even nations like the eurodistricts . As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas , as well as satellite cities, towns and intervening rural areas that are socio-economically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns
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Greenwich Mean Time
GREENWICH MEAN TIME (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich
Greenwich
, London
London
. GMT was formerly used as the international civil time standard, now superseded in that function by Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) . Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes (but this is not formalised) and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); these two meanings can differ by up to 0.9 s. Consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes
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Time Zone
A TIME ZONE is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal , commercial , and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time . Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours ( UTC−12 to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland Standard Time is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones
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Scottish English
SCOTTISH ENGLISH refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland
Scotland
. The main, formal variety is called SCOTTISH STANDARD ENGLISH or STANDARD SCOTTISH ENGLISH (SSE). Scottish Standard English may be defined as "the characteristic speech of the professional class and the accepted norm in schools". IETF language tag for "Scottish Standard English" is en-Scotland. In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English
Scottish English
has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland
Scotland
, local government and the education and legal systems. Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum , with focused broad Scots at the other. Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), commonly referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME in speech, and known as SUMMER TIME in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it
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ISO 3166-2
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. For public number systems, geographic location plays a role in the sequence of numbers assigned to each telephone subscriber. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans
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Countries Of The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) comprises four countries : England
England
, Northern Ireland
Ireland
, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
. Within the United Kingdom, a unitary sovereign state , Northern Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
have gained a degree of autonomy through the process of devolution . The UK Parliament and British Government deal with all reserved matters for Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
and all non-transferred matters for Wales, but not in general matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly , Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales
Wales

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ONS Coding System
In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS maintains a series of codes to represent a wide range of geographical areas of the UK, for use in tabulating census and other statistical data. These codes are referred to as ONS CODES or GSS CODES referring to the Government Statistical Service of which ONS is part. The previous hierarchical system of codes has been replaced as from January 2011 by a nine-character code for all types of geography, in which there is no relation between the code for a lower-tier area and the corresponding parent area. The older coding system has now been phased out
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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