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Abd Al-Rahman I
Abd al-Rahman I, more fully Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
(731–788), was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba)
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Abdurrahman Wahid
Abdurrahman Wahid, born Abdurrahman ad-Dakhil[2][3] (/ˌɑːbduːˈrɑːxmɑːn wɑːˈhiːd/ ( listen) AHB-doo-RAHKH-mahn wah-HEED; Javanese: ꦄꦧ꧀ꦢꦸꦫꦿꦃꦩꦤ꧀ꦮꦲꦶꦢ꧀; Chinese: 阿卜杜拉赫曼·瓦希德) September 1940 – 30 December 2009), colloquially known as  Gus Dur (help·info), was an Indonesian Muslim religious and political leader who served as the President of Indonesia
President of Indonesia
from 1999 to 2001
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Fihrid
The Fihrids (also known as Oqbids) were an illustrious Arab family and clan, prominent in North Africa and Muslim Iberia during the 8th century. The al-Fihri were originally an Arabian clan Banu Fihr attached to the Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet. Probably the most illustrious of the Fihrids was Oqba ibn Nafi al-Fihri, the Arab Muslim conqueror of North Africa in 670-680s, and founder of Kairouan. Several of his sons and grandsons participated in the subsequent conquest of Hispania in 712. As spearheads of the western conquest, the al-Fihris were probably the leading aristocratic Arab family of Ifriqiya and Al-Andalus in the first half of the 8th century. They produced several governors and military leaders of those provinces. After the Berber Revolt of 740-41, the west fell into a period of anarchy and disorder. The Umayyad Caliph in Damascus, facing revolts in Persia, did not have the resources to re-impose their authority in the west
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Abbasids
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Ahmed Mohammed Al-Maqqari
Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmad ibn Mohammed al-Maqqari (or Al-Makkari) (c. 1578–1632) was an Algerian scholar who was born in Tlemcen
Tlemcen
in 1577 from a prominent intellectual family that traced its origin to the village of Maqqara, near M'sila.[1] After an early training in Tlemcen, al-Maqqari moved to Fes
Fes
in Morocco and then to Marrakech, following the court of Ahmad al-Mansur, to whom he dedicated his Rawdat al-As (The garden of Myrtle) about the ulemas of Marrakech
Marrakech
and Fes. After al- Mansur's death in 1603, al-Maqqari established himself in Fes, where he was appointed both as mufti and as the imam of the Qarawiyyin
Qarawiyyin
mosque by al-Mansour's successor Zidan Abu Maali
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Palestine (region)
Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين‎ Filasṭīn, Falasṭīn, Filisṭīn; Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה‎ Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia. It is usually considered to include the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel, and in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan. The name was used by ancient Greek writers, and it was later used for the Roman
Roman
province Syria
Syria
Palaestina, the Byzantine Palaestina Prima, and the Islamic provincial district of Jund Filastin
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Sinai
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (/ˈsaɪnaɪ/;[1][2] Arabic: سِينَاء‎ Sīnāʼ ; Egyptian Arabic: سينا‎ Sīna, IPA: [ˈsiːnæ]; Classical Syriac: ܣܝܢܝ‎, Hebrew: סִינַי‬ Sinai) is a peninsula in Egypt, the only part of the country located in Asia. It is situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, and is a land bridge between Asia and Africa. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate. Three other governorates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez Governorate on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate in the center, and Port Said Governorate in the north. The Sinai Peninsula has been a part of Egypt from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (c. 3100 BC)
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Maghreb
المغرب‎‎ al-Maɣréb ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ / Tamazɣa‎Countries and territories Algeria Libya Mauritania Morocco Tunisia Western SaharaMajor regional organizations Arab League, Arab Maghreb Union, Community of Sahel-Saharan StatesLanguagesArabic (Maghrebi Arabic) BerberReligion Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Traditional Berber religion, IrreligionCapitals Tripoli (Libya) Algiers (Algeria) Nouakchott (Mauritania) Rabat (Morocco) Tunis (Tunisia)CurrencyAlgerian dinar Libyan dinar Mauritanian ouguiya Moroccan dirham Tunisian dinarThe Maghreb, also known as the Berber world,[1][2] Barbary,[3][4][5] or Berbery[6][7] (Arabic: المغرب‎ al-Maɣréb; Berber languages: Tamazɣa or Tamazgha, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ) is a major region of northern Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania
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Muslim Conquest Of The Maghreb
Muslim conquest of the Levantal-Qaryatayn Bosra Ajnadayn Marj Rahit Fahl Damascus Maraj-al-Debaj Emesa Yarmouk Jerusalem Hazir Aleppo Iron Bridge GermaniciaMuslim conquest of EgyptHeliopolis Babylon Fortress Alexandria NikiouMuslim conquest of North AfricaSufetula Vescera Mamma Carthage Umayyad
Umayyad
invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople1st Constantinople Sebastopolis Tyana 2nd Constantinople Nicaea AkroinonArab– Byzantine
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Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Habib Al-Fihri
Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri (died 755) was an Arab
Arab
noble of the Oqbid or Fihrid family, and ruler of Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(North Africa) from 745 through 755 AD.Contents1 Background 2 Tunisian Coup 3 Ruler in Ifriqiya 4 Relations with the Caliphs 5 References 6 Sources 7 See alsoBackground[edit] Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib was a great-grandson of Oqba ibn Nafi al-Fihri (Muslim Arab
Arab
conqueror of North Africa). His family, the al-Fihris, were among the leading Arab
Arab
families of the Maghreb. In 740, Ibn Habib joined his father Habib ibn Abi Obeida in an Arab expedition across the water to Sicily
Sicily
in what was possibly the first attempt at a full-scale invasion of the island (rather than a mere raid)
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Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية‎ Ifrīqya) or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.[1]. The southern boundary of Ifriqiya was far more unchallenged as bounded by the semi-arid areas and the salt marshes called el-Djerid. The northern and western boundaries fluctuated; at times as far north as Sicily otherwise just along the coastline, and the western boundary usually went as far as Béjaïa
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Kairouan
Kairouan
Kairouan
(Arabic: القيروان‎  Qeirwān, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate
Kairouan Governorate
in Tunisia. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Umayyads
Umayyads
around 670.[1] In the period of Caliph
Caliph
Mu'awiya (reigned 661–680), it became an important centre for Sunni
Sunni
Islamic scholarship and Quranic learning,[2] and thus attracting a large number of Muslims from various parts of the world, next only to Mecca and Medina
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Freedman
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, slaves were freed either by manumission (granted freedom by their owner) or emancipation (granted freedom as part of a larger group). A fugitive slave is one who escaped slavery by fleeing.Contents1 Ancient Rome 2 Arabian and North African slavery 3 United States3.1 Cherokee Freedmen4 See also 5 References 6 External linksAncient Rome[edit] Main article: Slavery
Slavery
in ancient RomeCinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius
Claudius
Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughterRome differed from Greek city-states
Greek city-states
in allowing freed slaves to become plebeian citizens.[1] The act of freeing a slave was called manumissio, from manus, "hand" (in the sense of holding or possessing something), and missio, the act of releasing
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Kabylie
Kabylie, or Kabylia (Berber languages: Tamurt en Yiqbayliyen ; Tazwawa; ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵍⴻⵇⴱⴰⵢⴻⵍ), is a cultural region, natural region, and historical region in northern Algeria. It is part of the Tell Atlas
Tell Atlas
mountain range, and is located at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea. Kabylia covers several provinces of Algeria: the whole of Tizi Ouzou and Bejaia
Bejaia
(Bgayet), most of Bouira
Bouira
(Tubirett) and parts of the wilayas of Boumerdes, Jijel, Setif
Setif
and Bordj Bou Arreridj
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Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta
(assimilated pronunciation /ˈsjuːtə/ SEW-tə; also /ˈseɪʊtə/ SAY-uu-tə;[2] Spanish: [ˈθeuta]; Berber language: Sebta; Arabic: سبتة‎) is an 18.5-square-kilometre (7.1 sq mi) Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province
Cadiz province
on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture
M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture
in the Kingdom of Morocco. It lies along the boundary between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Atlantic Ocean and is one of nine populated Spanish territories in Africa
Africa
and, along with Melilla, one of two populated territories on mainland Africa
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