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AT Attachment
Parallel ATA
Parallel ATA
(PATA), originally AT Attachment, is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disk drives, floppy disk drives, and optical disc drives in computers. The standard is maintained by the X3/ INCITS committee.[1] It uses the underlying AT Attachment (ATA) and AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI) standards. The Parallel ATA
Parallel ATA
standard is the result of a long history of incremental technical development, which began with the original AT Attachment interface, developed for use in early PC AT
PC AT
equipment. The ATA interface itself evolved in several stages from Western Digital's original Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface. As a result, many near-synonyms for ATA/ATAPI and its previous incarnations are still in common informal use, in particular Extended IDE (EIDE) and Ultra ATA (UATA)
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SoundBlaster
The Sound Blaster family of sound cards was the de facto standard for consumer audio on the IBM PC compatible system platform, until the widespread transition to Microsoft Windows 95, which standardized the programming interface at application level (eliminating the importance of backward compatibility with Sound Blaster), and the evolution in PC design led to onboard motherboard-audio, which commoditized PC audio functionality
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Sound Blaster Pro
The Sound Blaster
Sound Blaster
family of sound cards was the de facto standard for consumer audio on the IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
system platform, until the widespread transition to Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
95, which standardized the programming interface at application level (eliminating the importance of backward compatibility with Sound Blaster), and the evolution in PC design led to onboard motherboard-audio, which commoditized PC audio functionality
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Oak Technology
Oak Technology was an American supplier of semiconductor chips for sound cards, graphics cards and optical storage devices such as CD-ROM, CD-RW and DVD. It achieved success with optical storage chips and its stock price increased substantially around the time of the tech bubble in 2000. [1] After falling on hard times, in 2003 it was acquired by Zoran Corporation. [2] Oak Technology helped develop the ATAPI standard and provided the oakcdrom.sys CD-ROM driver that was ubiquitous on DOS-based systems in the mid-1990s.Contents1 History 2 Graphics products 3 Optical storage products 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Oak Technology, Inc was founded in 1987 and was based in Sunnyvale, California, USA. During the late 1980s through the early 1990s, Oak was a supplier of PC graphics (SVGA) chipsets and PCBs. Oak Technology also supplied mother board chipsets - a PS2 compatible chipset and the Oaknote chipset for notebooks
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X86
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures[a] based on the Intel
Intel
8086
8086
CPU and its Intel
Intel
8088 variant. The 8086
8086
was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit-based 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address
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CD-ROM
A CD-ROM
CD-ROM
/ˌsiːˌdiːˈrɒm/ is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data. The name is an acronym which stands for "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory". Computers can read CD-ROMs, but cannot write to CD-ROMs, which are not writable or erasable. During the 1990s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software for computers and video game consoles. Some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data (such as software or digital video) is only usable on a computer (such as ISO 9660[2] format PC CD-ROMs). The CD-ROM
CD-ROM
format was developed by Japanese company Denon
Denon
in 1982
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SCSI
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI, /ˈskʌzi/ SKUZ-ee)[1] is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. The SCSI
SCSI
standards define commands, protocols, electrical and optical interfaces. SCSI
SCSI
is most commonly used for hard disk drives and tape drives, but it can connect a wide range of other devices, including scanners and CD drives, although not all controllers can handle all devices
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Bus Arbitration
In computing, bus mastering is a feature supported by many bus architectures that enables a device connected to the bus to initiate direct memory access (DMA) transactions. It is also referred to as first-party DMA, in contrast with third-party DMA where a system DMA controller actually does the transfer. Some types of buses allow only one device (typically the CPU, or its proxy) to initiate transactions. Most modern bus architectures, such as PCI, allow multiple devices to bus master because it significantly improves performance for general-purpose operating systems
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Sound Card
 via one of:PCI ISA USB IEEE 1394 IBM PC Parallel Port PCI-E MCA (rare) PCMCIA
PCMCIA
interfaces (PC Card, Expresscard)Line in or out: via one of:Analogue - phone, RCA or DIN connector Digital - RCA, TOSLink or AES/EBUMicrophone via one of:Phone connector PIN connectorCommon manufacturers Creative Labs
Creative Labs
(and subsidiary E-mu Systems) Realtek C-Media MARIAN digital audio electronics M-Audio Turtle Beach ASUSA sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces used for professional audio applications. Sound functionality can also be integrated onto the motherboard, using components similar to those found on plug-in cards. The integrated sound system is often still referred to as a sound card
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PC Speaker
A PC speaker
PC speaker
is a loudspeaker built into most IBM
IBM
PC compatible computers. The first IBM
IBM
Personal Computer, model 5150, employed a standard 2.25 inch magnetic driven (dynamic) speaker.[1] More recent computers use a piezoelectric speaker instead.[2] The speaker allows software and firmware to provide auditory feedback to a user, such as to report a hardware fault
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Gameport
The game port, originally introduced on the Game Control Adapter, is a device port that was found on IBM
IBM
PC compatible and other computer systems throughout the 1980s and 1990s. It was the traditional connector for joystick input, and occasionally MIDI
MIDI
devices, until replaced by USB
USB
in the 21st century. Originally located on a dedicated expansion card, the game port was later integrated with PC sound cards, and still later on the PC's motherboard
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Enhanced Small Disk Interface
Enhanced Small Disk Interface (ESDI) was a disk interface designed by Maxtor Corporation in the early 1980s to be a follow-on to the ST-412/506 interface. ESDI improved on ST-506 by moving certain parts that were traditionally kept on the controller (such as the data separator) into the drives themselves, and also generalizing the control bus such that more kinds of devices (such as removable disks and tape drives) could be connected. ESDI used the same cabling as ST-506 (one 34-pin common control cable, and a 20-pin data channel cable for each device), and thus could easily be retrofitted to ST-506 applications. ESDI was popular in the mid-to-late 1980s, when SCSI and IDE technologies were young and immature, and ST-506 was neither fast nor flexible enough
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Input/Output Base Address
In the x86 architecture, an input/output base address is the first address of a range of consecutive read/write addresses that a device uses on the x86's IO bus. This base address is sometimes called an I/O port. References[edit]HelpPC Quick Reference Utility by David JurgensExternal links[edit]Ralf Brown's Interrupt List – includes a list of I/O ports on IBM PC compatibles Base address term definition from Webopedia Introduction to IRQs, DMAs and Base Addresses Copyright © 1999, Eugene Blanchard, Published in Issue 38 of Linux Gazette, March 1999 The PC Guide Apogee FAQ at RinkWorks Programming the AdLib/Sound Blaster FM Music Chips I/O Ports and Controllers on IBM Compatibles and PS/2 at OS/2 Site AustraliaThis computing article is a stub
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Small Form Factor Committee
The Small Form Factor Committee is an ad hoc electronics industry group formed to quickly develop interoperability specifications (as a complement to the traditional standards process). The SFF Committee was formed in 1990 to define the emerging disk drive form factor for laptop computers. In November 1992, the members broadened the objectives to complement the formal standards process in any area of the storage industry which needed prompt attention. SFF projects are in areas not addressed by standards committees because of timing, charter, or other considerations. The committee consists of members that represent companies that develop, manufacture, and sell products and components for the storage industry
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DVD-ROM
DVD
DVD
(an abbreviation of "digital video disc"[5] or "digital versatile disc"[6][7]) is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips
Philips
and Sony
Sony
in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is widely used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD
DVD
players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD. Such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be read and not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD
DVD
discs ( DVD-R
DVD-R
and DVD+R) can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and then function as a DVD-ROM
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Tape Drive
A tape drive is a data storage device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape. Magnetic tape
Magnetic tape
data storage is typically used for offline, archival data storage. Tape media generally has a favorable unit cost and a long archival stability. A tape drive provides sequential access storage, unlike a hard disk drive, which provides direct access storage. A disk drive can move to any position on the disk in a few milliseconds, but a tape drive must physically wind tape between reels to read any one particular piece of data. As a result, tape drives have very slow average access times. However, tape drives can stream data very quickly off a tape when the required position has been reached
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