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AMI Pain Back
The human back is the large posterior area of the human body, rising from the top of the buttocks to the back of the neck and the shoulders. It is the surface of the body opposite from the chest. The vertebral column runs the length of the back and creates a central area of recession. The breadth of the back is created by the shoulders at the top and the pelvis at the bottom. Back pain
Back pain
is a common medical condition, generally benign in origin.Contents1 Structure1.1 Muscles 1.2 Organs of the back 1.3 Surface of the back 1.4 Movement2 Clinical significance2.1 Back pain3 Society and culture 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The central feature of the human back is the vertebral column, specifically the length from the top of the thoracic vertebrae to the bottom of the lumbar vertebrae, which houses the spinal cord in its spinal canal, and which generally has some curvature that gives shape to the back
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Back (other)
Back may refer to:In anatomy, the dorsal side of the torso in humans and other primatesBack (horse), the back of a horse Human back, the large posterior area of the human body, rising from the top of the buttocks to the back of the neck and the shouldersContents1 People 2 Places 3 Sports3.1 Qualified terms4 Entertainment 5 Other usesIt may also refer to: People[edit]Adam Back, British cryptographer Charles Back, South African winemaker Chris Back
Chris Back
(born 1950), Australian politician
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Lumbar
In tetrapod anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum. The lumbar region is sometimes referred to as the lower spine, or as an area of the back in its proximity. In human anatomy the five vertebrae in the lumbar region of the back are the largest and strongest in the movable part of the spinal column, and can be distinguished by the absence of a foramen in the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. In most mammals, the lumbar region of the spine curves outward. The actual spinal cord (Angelamedulla spinalis) terminates between vertebrae one and two of this series, called L1 and L2. The nervous tissue that extends below this point are individual strands that collectively form the cauda equina. In between each lumbar vertebra a nerve root exits, and these nerve roots come together again to form the largest single nerve in the human body, the sciatic nerve
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Latissimus Dorsi
The latissimus dorsi (/ˌləˈtɪsɪməs ˈdɔːrsaɪ/) a large, flat muscle on the back that stretches to the sides, behind the arm, and is partly covered by the trapezius on the back near the midline. The word latissimus dorsi (plural: latissimi dorsi) comes from Latin
Latin
and means "broadest [muscle] of the back", from "latissimus" (Latin: broadest)' and "dorsum" (Latin: back). The pair of muscles are commonly known as "lats", especially among bodybuilders. The latissimus dorsi is the largest muscle in the upper body. The latissimus dorsi is responsible for extension, adduction, transverse extension also known as horizontal abduction, flexion from an extended position, and (medial) internal rotation of the shoulder joint
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Lung
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung
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Kidney
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. They are located at the back of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneal space. In adults they are about 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each adult kidney contains around one million nephrons. The nephron utilizes four processes to alter the blood plasma which flows to it: filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion
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Peritoneum
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids. It covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs, and is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue. This peritoneal lining of the cavity supports many of the abdominal organs and serves as a conduit for their blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. The abdominal cavity (the space bounded by the vertebrae, abdominal muscles, diaphragm, and pelvic floor) is different from the intraperitoneal space (located within the abdominal cavity, but wrapped in peritoneum)
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Skin
Skin
Skin
is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates. Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition. The adjective cutaneous means "of the skin" (from Latin
Latin
cutis, skin). In mammals, the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Skin
Skin
of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, and birds.[1] All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals like whales, dolphins, and porpoises which appear to be hairless. The skin interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors
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George Steele
William James Myers (April 16, 1937 – February 16, 2017), better known by his ring name George "The Animal" Steele, was an American professional wrestler, school teacher, author, and actor
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Cutaneous Nerve
A cutaneous nerve is a nerve that innervates the skin.Contents1 Human anatomy 2 Upper body 3 Lower body 4 OtherHuman anatomy[edit]Dermatomes and major cutaneous nerves.In human anatomy, cutaneous nerves are responsible for providing sensory innervation to the skin. They are generally thought of as sensory-only nerves, but they may provide motor innervation to structures in the skin, e.g. sweat glands. There are many cutaneous nerves in the human body, only some of which are named
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Nerve Branch
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts.[1][2] Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells
Schwann cells
that coat the axons in myelin. Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium
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Intercostal Nerve
The intercostal nerves are part of the somatic nervous system, and arise from the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11. The intercostal nerves are distributed chiefly to the thoracic pleura and abdominal peritoneum and differ from the anterior rami of the other spinal nerves in that each pursues an independent course without plexus formation. The first two nerves supply fibers to the upper limb in addition to their thoracic branches; the next four are limited in their distribution to the walls of the thorax; the lower five supply the walls of the thorax and abdomen. The 7th intercostal nerve terminates at the xyphoid process, at the lower end of the sternum. The 10th intercostal nerve terminates at the navel. The twelfth (subcostal) thoracic is distributed to the abdominal wall and groin. Unlike the nerves from the autonomic nervous system that innervate the visceral pleura of the thoracic cavity, the intercostal nerves arise from the somatic nervous system
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Degenerative Disc Disease
Degenerative disc disease
Degenerative disc disease
(DDD) describes the natural breakdown of an intervertebral disc of the spine. Despite its name, DDD is not considered a disease, nor is it progressively degenerative. On the contrary, disc degeneration is often the effect of natural daily stresses and minor injuries that cause spinal discs to gradually lose water as the anulus fibrosus, or the rigid outer shell of a disc, weakens. As discs weaken and lose water, they begin to collapse
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Spinal Disc Herniation
Spinal disc herniation, also known as a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. Disc herniation is usually due to age-related degeneration of the outer ring, known as the anulus fibrosus, although trauma, lifting injuries, or straining have been implicated as well. Tears are almost always postero-lateral (on the back of the sides) owing to the presence of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the spinal canal.[1] This tear in the disc ring may result in the release of chemicals causing inflammation, which may directly cause severe pain even in the absence of nerve root compression. Disc herniations are normally a further development of a previously existing disc protrusion, a condition in which the outermost layers of the anulus fibrosus are still intact, but can bulge when the disc is under pressure
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Trapezium (shape)
In Euclidean geometry, a convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is referred to as a trapezoid[1][2] (/ˈtræpəzɔɪd/) in American and Canadian English
Canadian English
but as a trapezium (/trəˈpiːziəm/) in English outside North America. The parallel sides are called the bases of the trapezoid and the other two sides are called the legs or the lateral sides (if they are not parallel; otherwise there are two pairs of bases)
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Spondylolisthesis
Spondylolisthesis
Spondylolisthesis
is the slippage or displacement of one vertebra compared to another.Contents1 Terminology 2 Anterolisthesis2.1 Signs and symptoms 2.2 Classification2.2.1 By causes 2.2.2 By location 2.2.3 Severity2.3 Treatment2.3.1 Conservative 2.3.2 Surgical3 Retrolisthesis 4 History 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTerminology[edit] Spondylolisthesis
Spondylolisthesis
is often defined in the literature as displacement in any direction.[1][2] Yet, medical dictionaries usually define spondylolisthesis specifically as the forward or anterior displacement of a vertebra over the vertebra inferior to it (or the sacrum).[3][4] Olisthesis is a term that more explicitly denotes displacement in any direction.[5] Forward or anterior displacement can specifically be called anterolisthesis.[1][2] Anterolisthesis commonly involves the fifth lumbar vertebra.[6] Backward displacement is called retrolisthesis
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