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A Contribution To The Critique Of Political Economy
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY (German : Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie) is a book by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, first published in 1859. The book is mainly an analysis of capitalism and quantity theory of money , achieved by critiquing the writings of the leading theoretical exponents of capitalism at that time: these were the political economists , nowadays often referred to as the classical economists ; Adam Smith (1723–90) and David Ricardo
David Ricardo
(1772–1823) are the foremost representatives of the genre. CONTENTS * 1 Significance * 2 Editions * 3 Notes * 4 References SIGNIFICANCEMuch of the Critique was later incorporated by Marx into his magnum opus, Capital
Capital
(Volume I) , published in 1867, and the Critique is generally considered to be of secondary importance among Marx's writings. This does not apply, however, to the Preface of the Critique
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Maurice Dobb
MAURICE HERBERT DOBB (24 July 1900 – 17 August 1976) was a British economist at Cambridge University and a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge . He is remembered as one of the pre-eminent Marxist economists of the 20th century. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Career * 1.2 The Hogarth Press * 1.3 Death and legacy * 2 Economic thought * 2.1 Antecedent co-ordination * 2.2 External effects * 2.3 Variables in planning * 3 Footnotes * 4 Works * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHY Maurice Dobb was born on 24 July 1900 in London, the son of Walter Herbert Dobb and the former Elsie Annie Moir. Dobb and his family lived in Willesden, a suburb of London. Dobb was educated at Charterhouse School
Charterhouse School
in Surrey, an independent boarding school
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David Ricardo
DAVID RICARDO (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist . He was one of the most influential of the classical economists , along with Thomas Malthus , Adam Smith
Adam Smith
, and James Mill
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Progress Publishers
PROGRESS PUBLISHERS was a Moscow
Moscow
-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931. It was noted for its English-language editions of books on Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
. Progress Publishers
Progress Publishers
were particularly also known for their "Short History of USSR" and ABC series (ABC of Party, ABC of Socialism, ABC of Dialectical Materialism, etc.). They also published many scientific books, books on arts, political books, classic books , children\'s literature , novels and short fiction, books in source languages for people studying foreign languages, guidebooks and photographic albums . They also published, in 1979, Marx and Engels on the United States , a compilation drawn from letters, articles, and various other works. One of the common features of all Progress books was their "request to reader" to send an opinion and suggestions on the book. It reads: “ REQUEST TO READERS
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Capital
CAPITAL may refer to: * Capital city
Capital city
, the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the government* Capital letter , an upper-case letter in a writing system *
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Theories Of Surplus Value
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e A THEORY is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek , but in modern use it has taken on several related meanings. Theories guide the enterprise of finding facts rather than of reaching goals, and are neutral concerning alternatives among values. :131 A theory can be a body of knowledge , which may or may not be associated with particular explanatory models . To theorize is to develop this body of knowledge
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Adam Smith
ADAM SMITH FRSA (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS ) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher, and author. He was a moral philosopher , a pioneer of political economy , and was a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
era. He is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics . Smith studied social philosophy at the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
and at Balliol College, Oxford
Balliol College, Oxford
, where he was one of the first students to benefit from scholarships set up by fellow Scot, John Snell
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Notes On James Mill
"NOTES ON JAMES MILL" is a text written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in 1844, originally part of the so-called "Paris Notebooks". In it Marx criticizes parts of James Mill 's Elements of Political Economy. It forms the foundation for what would later become his Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 . "Notes on James Mill" is particularly important to the development of Marx's overall project because it gives insight into the concept of non-alienated labor. Here, non-alienated labor is described such that a person's immediate enjoyment of production is seen as evidence of his/her powers. However, it is also described as meeting the needs of others. This confirms the productive and social aspects of a person's species-being
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Political Economy
POLITICAL ECONOMY is the study of production and trade and their relations with law , custom and government as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth . Political economy
Political economy
as a discipline originated in moral philosophy in the 18th century and sought to explore the administration of states' wealth, with "political" signifying the Greek word polity and "economy" signifying the Greek word "okonomie" or "household management". The earliest works of political economy are most often attributed to British scholars like Adam Smith
Adam Smith
, Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo
David Ricardo
, although the case is sometimes made that the still earlier works of the French physiocrats constitute the true beginnings of the discipline
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Classical Economics
CLASSICAL ECONOMICS (also known as LIBERAL ECONOMICS) asserts that markets function best with minimal government interference . It was developed in the late 18th and early 19th century by Adam Smith
Adam Smith
, Jean-Baptiste Say , David Ricardo
David Ricardo
, Thomas Robert Malthus
Thomas Robert Malthus
, and John Stuart Mill . Many writers found Adam Smith's idea of free markets more convincing than the idea, widely accepted at the time, of protectionism . Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776 is usually considered to mark the beginning of classical economics. The fundamental message in Smith's influential book was that the wealth of nations was based not on gold but on trade: That when two parties freely agree to exchange things of value, because both see a profit in the exchange, total wealth increases
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Marx/Engels Collected Works
MARX/ENGELS COLLECTED WORKS (USUALLY KNOWN AS MECW) is the largest collection of translations into English of the works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. It contains all works published by Marx and Engels in their lifetimes and numerous unpublished manuscripts and letters. The Collected Works, which was translated by Richard Dixon and others, consists of 50 volumes. It was compiled and issued between 1975 and 2005 by Progress Publishers
Progress Publishers
(1931, Moscow) in collaboration with Lawrence and Wishart (1936, London) and International Publishers (1924, New York City). CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Contents * 3 Editors in English * 3.1 Volumes based on Lawrence (E) May 1843 – June 1844 1975 4 (M/E) 1844–45, incl
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Capitalism
CAPITALISM is an economic system and ideology based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit . Characteristics central to capitalism include private property , capital accumulation , wage labor , voluntary exchange , a price system , and competitive markets . In a capitalist market economy , decision-making and investment are determined by the owners of the factors of production in financial and capital markets , and prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in the market. Economists , political economists , and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism , and state capitalism
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Socialism
SOCIALISM is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production , as well as the political theories, and movements associated with them. Social ownership may refer to forms of public , collective , or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity . There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them. Social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money , with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind , thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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The Part Played By Labour In The Transition From Ape To Man
"THE PART PLAYED BY LABOUR IN THE TRANSITION FROM APE TO MAN" (German: "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen") is an unfinished essay written by Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
in spring of 1876. The essay forms the ninth chapter of Dialectics of Nature
Dialectics of Nature
, which proposes a unitary materialist paradigm of natural and human history. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Summary * 3 Relevance to Marxist thought * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTIONThough incomplete, the essay elucidates two aspects of materialist theory which had underpinned Marx and Engels’s thinking since the mid-1840s
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The Civil War In France
"THE CIVIL WAR IN FRANCE" (German: "Der Bürgerkrieg in Frankreich") was a pamphlet written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, as an official statement of the General Council of the International on the character and significance of the struggle of the Communards
Communards
in the Paris Commune
Paris Commune
. CONTENTS * 1 Writing * 2 Publication * 3 Theoretical consequences * 4 Notes * 5 External links WRITINGBetween the middle of April and the end of May 1871, London
London
resident Karl Marx
Karl Marx
collected and compiled English, French, and German newspaper clippings on the progress of the French civil war, which pitted the radical workers of Paris against conservative forces from outside the city
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