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A Contribution To The Critique Of Political Economy
_A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY_ (German : _Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie_) is a book by Karl Marx , first published in 1859. The book is mainly an analysis of capitalism and quantity theory of money , achieved by critiquing the writings of the leading theoretical exponents of capitalism at that time: these were the political economists , nowadays often referred to as the classical economists ; Adam Smith (1723–90) and David Ricardo (1772–1823) are the foremost representatives of the genre. CONTENTS * 1 Significance * 2 Editions * 3 Notes * 4 References SIGNIFICANCEMuch of the _Critique_ was later incorporated by Marx into his magnum opus, _Capital_ (Volume I) , published in 1867, and the _Critique_ is generally considered to be of secondary importance among Marx's writings. This does not apply, however, to the Preface of the _Critique_. It contains the first connected account of one of Marx's main theories: the economic interpretation of history . Briefly, this is the idea that economic factors – the way people produce the necessities of life – conditions the kind of politics and ideology a society can have: "The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond (_entsprechen_) definite forms of social consciousness
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Karl Marx
KARL MARX (/mɑːrks/ ; German: ; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a Prussian-born philosopher , economist , political theorist , sociologist , journalist , and revolutionary socialist . Born in Trier to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy . As an adult, Marx became stateless and spent much of his life in London, England , where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet _ The Communist Manifesto _. His work has since influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history. Marx's theories about society, economics, and politics—collectively understood as Marxism —hold that human societies develop through class struggle ; in capitalism , this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie ) that control the means of production and working classes (known as the proletariat ) that enable these means by selling their labour for wages. Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism , Marx predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism
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Political Economy
POLITICAL ECONOMY is a term used for studying production and trade , and their relations with law, custom , and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth . _Political economy_ originated in moral philosophy . It was developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states, or _polities _, hence the term _political_ economy. In the late 19th century, the term _economics _ came to replace _political economy_, coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890. Earlier, William Stanley Jevons , a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated _economics_ for brevity and with the hope of the term becoming "the recognised name of a science." Today, _political economy_, where it is not used as a synonym for economics, may refer to very different things, including Marxian analysis, applied public choice approaches emanating from the Chicago school and the Virginia school , or simply the advice given by economists to the government or public on general economic policy or on specific proposals. A rapidly growing mainstream literature from the 1970s has expanded beyond the model of economic policy in which planners maximize utility of a representative individual toward examining how political forces affect the choice of economic policies , especially as to distributional conflicts and political institutions
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography ). LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 de ISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T) ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh – Middle High German goh – Old High German gct – Colonia Tovar German bar – Bavarian cim – Cimbrian geh – Hutterite German ksh – Kölsch nds – Low German sli – Lower Silesian ltz – Luxembourgish vmf – Mainfränkisch mhn – Mócheno pfl – Palatinate German pdc – Pennsylvania German pdt – Plautdietsch swg – Swabian German gsw – Swiss German uln – Unserdeutsch sxu – Upper Saxon wae – Walser German wep – Westphalian hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch yec – Yenish GLOTTOLOG high1287 High Franconian uppe1397 Upper German LINGUASPHERE further information 52-AC (Continental West Germanic) > 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch) > 52-ACB-d ( Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German ) + 52-ACB-e & -f ( Upper German & Swiss German ) + 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl
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Capitalism
CAPITALISM is an economic system and ideology based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit . Characteristics central to capitalism include private property , capital accumulation , wage labor , voluntary exchange , a price system , and competitive markets . In a capitalist market economy , decision-making and investment are determined by the owners of the factors of production in financial and capital markets , and prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in the market. Economists , political economists , and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include _laissez-faire _ or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism , and state capitalism . Different forms of capitalism feature varying degrees of free markets, public ownership, obstacles to free competition, and state-sanctioned social policies . The degree of competition in markets, the role of intervention and regulation, and the scope of state ownership vary across different models of capitalism; the extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, are matters of politics and policy . Most existing capitalist economies are mixed economies , which combine elements of free markets with state intervention, and in some cases economic planning
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Quantity Theory Of Money
In monetary economics , the QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY (QTM) states that the general price level of goods and services is directly proportional to the amount of money in circulation, or money supply . The theory was challenged by Keynesian economics , but updated and reinvigorated by the monetarist school of economics . While mainstream economists agree that the quantity theory holds true in the long run , there is still disagreement about its applicability in the short run . Critics of the theory argue that money velocity is not stable and, in the short-run, prices are sticky , so the direct relationship between money supply and price level does not hold. Alternative theories include the real bills doctrine and the more recent fiscal theory of the price level
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Classical Economics
CLASSICAL ECONOMICS (also known as LIBERAL ECONOMICS) asserts that markets function best with minimal government interference . It was developed in the late 18th and early 19th century by Adam Smith , Jean-Baptiste Say , David Ricardo , Thomas Robert Malthus , and John Stuart Mill . Many writers found Adam Smith's idea of free markets more convincing than the idea, widely accepted at the time, of protectionism . Adam Smith's _ The Wealth of Nations _ in 1776 is usually considered to mark the beginning of classical economics. The fundamental message in Smith's influential book was that the wealth of nations was based not on gold but on trade: That when two parties freely agree to exchange things of value, because both see a profit in the exchange, total wealth increases. Classical economics originally differed from modern libertarian economics in seeing a role for the state in providing for the common good. Smith acknowledged that there were areas where the market is not the best way to serve the common good , and he took it as a given that the greater proportion of the costs supporting the common good should be borne by those best able to afford them. Classical economists observe that markets generally regulate themselves, when free of coercion
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Adam Smith
ADAM SMITH FRSA (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS ) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher, and author. He was a moral philosopher , a pioneer of political economy , and was a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era. He is best known for two classic works: _ The Theory of Moral Sentiments _ (1759), and _An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations _ (1776). The latter, usually abbreviated as _The Wealth of Nations_, is considered his _magnum opus _ and the first modern work of economics . Smith studied social philosophy at the University of Glasgow and at Balliol College, Oxford , where he was one of the first students to benefit from scholarships set up by fellow Scot, John Snell . After graduating, he delivered a successful series of public lectures at Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, leading him to collaborate with David Hume
David Hume
during the Scottish Enlightenment . Smith obtained a professorship at Glasgow teaching moral philosophy, and during this time he wrote and published _The Theory of Moral Sentiments_. In his later life, he took a tutoring position that allowed him to travel throughout Europe, where he met other intellectual leaders of his day. Smith laid the foundations of classical free market economic theory. _The Wealth of Nations_ was a precursor to the modern academic discipline of economics
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David Ricardo
DAVID RICARDO (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist . He was one of the most influential of the classical economists , along with Thomas Malthus , Adam Smith , and James Mill . CONTENTS * 1 Personal life * 2 Parliamentary record * 3 Death and legacy * 4 Ideas * 4.1 Value theory * 4.2 Rent * 4.3 Ricardo\'s theories of wages and profits * 4.4 Comparative advantage * 4.4.1 Criticism * 4.4.2 Protectionism * 5 Criticism of the Ricardian theory of trade * 6 Ricardian equivalence * 7 Influence and intellectual legacy * 7.1 Ricardian socialists * 7.2 Georgists * 7.3 Neo-Ricardians * 7.3.1 Neo-Ricardian trade theory * 7.3.2 Evolutionary growth theory * 7.3.3 Contemporary theories * 7.3.4 Unequal exchange * 8 Publications * 9 References * 9.1 Notes * 9.2 Bibliography * 10 External links PERSONAL LIFE _ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2013)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_Born in London, England, Ricardo was the third of 17 children of a Sephardic Jewish family of Portuguese origin who had recently relocated from the Dutch Republic . His father, Abraham Ricardo, was a successful stockbroker
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Historical Materialism
HISTORICAL MATERIALISM is a methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time. This was first articulated by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1818–1883) as the MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY. It is principally a theory of history according to which the material conditions of a society's way of producing and reproducing the means of human existence or, in Marxist terms, the union of its productive capacity and social relations of production , fundamentally determine its organization and development. Historical materialism
Historical materialism
looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social classes and the relationship between them, along with the political structures and ways of thinking in society, are founded on and reflect contemporary economic activity. Since Marx's time, the theory has been modified and expanded by Marxist writers. It now has many Marxist and non-Marxist variants
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Relations Of Production
RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION (German: Produktionsverhältnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels in their theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital . It is first explicitly used in Marx's published book The Poverty of Philosophy , although Marx and Engels had already defined the term in The German Ideology . By "relations of production", Marx and Engels meant the sum total of social relationships that people must enter into in order to survive, to produce, and to reproduce their means of life. As people must enter into these social relationships, i.e. because participation in them is not voluntary, the totality of these relationships constitute a relatively stable and permanent structure , the "economic structure". The term "relations of production" is somewhat vague, for two main reasons: * The German word Verhältnis can mean "relation", "proportion", or "ratio". Thus, the relationships could be qualititative, quantitative, or both
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Base And Superstructure
In Marxist theory , human society consists of two parts: the BASE (or SUBSTRUCTURE) and SUPERSTRUCTURE; the base comprises the forces and relations of production —employer–employee work conditions, the technical division of labour , and property relations—into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. These relations determine society’s other relationships and ideas, which are described as its superstructure. The superstructure of a society includes its culture , institutions , political power structures , roles , rituals , and state . The base determines (conditions) the superstructure, yet their relation is not strictly causal, because the superstructure often influences the base; the influence of the base, however, predominates. In Orthodox Marxism , the base determines the superstructure in a one-way relationship. Note that in some non-Western languages, this concept is rendered as " Infrastructure
Infrastructure
and Superstructure" which could lead to a malapropism . It has only a vague conceptual relatedness to the English sense of infrastructure
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Social Consciousness
SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS is consciousness shared by individuals within a society . According to Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, human beings enter into certain productive, or economic, relations and these relations lead to a form of social consciousness. Marx said: "In the social production of their life, men enter into definite relations that are indispensable and independent of their will; these relations of production correspond to a definite stage of development of their material forces of production. The sum total of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society — the real foundation, on which rises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. The mode of production of material life determines the social, political and intellectual life process in general. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness." SEE ALSO * Sociology portal * Social conscience * Social intelligence * Collective consciousness
Collective consciousness
* Class consciousness * Consciousness raising * Bibek Thapa * Binita Thapa REFERENCESwww.sickbubble.com * ^ A B Social Consciousness Questia , 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014. * ^ Marx, Karl
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Maurice Dobb
MAURICE HERBERT DOBB (24 July 1900 – 17 August 1976) was a British economist at Cambridge University and a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge . He is remembered as one of the pre-eminent Marxist economists of the 20th century. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Career * 1.2 The Hogarth Press * 1.3 Death and legacy * 2 Economic thought * 2.1 Antecedent co-ordination * 2.2 External effects * 2.3 Variables in planning * 3 Footnotes * 4 Works * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHY Maurice Dobb was born on 24 July 1900 in London, the son of Walter Herbert Dobb and the former Elsie Annie Moir. Dobb and his family lived in Willesden, a suburb of London. Dobb was educated at Charterhouse School in Surrey, an independent boarding school. He began writing after the death of his mother, during his early teenage years, and his covert, introverted personality prevented him from building a network of friends. His earliest novels were fictional fantasies. Much like his father, Dobb initiated practice in Christian Science after his mother's death; the family had previously belonged to the Presbyterian church. Saved from military conscription by the Armistice of November 1918, Dobb was admitted to Pembroke College, Cambridge , in 1919 as an exhibitioner to study economics
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Progress Publishers
PROGRESS PUBLISHERS was a Moscow
Moscow
-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931. It was noted for its English-language editions of books on Marxism–Leninism . Progress Publishers
Progress Publishers
were particularly also known for their "Short History of USSR" and ABC series (_ABC of Party_, _ABC of Socialism_, _ABC of Dialectical Materialism_, etc.). They also published many scientific books, books on arts, political books, classic books , children\'s literature , novels and short fiction, books in source languages for people studying foreign languages, guidebooks and photographic albums . They also published, in 1979, _Marx and Engels on the United States _, a compilation drawn from letters, articles, and various other works. One of the common features of all Progress books was their "request to reader" to send an opinion and suggestions on the book. It reads: “ REQUEST TO READERS. Progress Publishers
Progress Publishers
would be glad to have your opinion of this book, its translation and design and any suggestions you may have for future publications. Please send all your comments to 21, Zubovsky Boulevard, Moscow, U.S.S.R. ”SEE ALSO * Moscow
Moscow
portal * Books portal * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal * Lawrence and Wishart REFERENCES * ^ Polevoi, Boris (1967). _A Story About a Real Man_
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