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7×57mm
The 7×57mm cartridge, also known as the 7mm Mauser, 7×57mm Mauser, 7mm Spanish Mauser
Mauser
in the USA and .275 Rigby in the United Kingdom is a first-generation smokeless powder rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge. It was developed by Paul Mauser
Paul Mauser
of the Mauser
Mauser
company in 1892 and adopted as a military cartridge by Spain
Spain
in 1893.[2] It was subsequently adopted by several other countries as the standard military cartridge. It is recognised as a milestone in modern cartridge design, and although now obsolete as a military cartridge, it remains in widespread international use as a sporting round
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SAAMI
The Sporting Arms and Ammunition
Ammunition
Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI, pronounced "Sammy") is an association of American firearms and ammunition manufacturers
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Poudre B
Poudre B was the first practical smokeless gunpowder. It was perfected between 1882 and 1884 at "Laboratoire Central des Poudres et Salpêtres" in Paris, France. Originally called "Poudre V", from the name of the inventor, Paul Vieille, it was arbitrarily renamed "Poudre B" (short for poudre blanche -- white powder, as distinguished from black powder) to distract German espionage.[1] "Poudre B" is made from 68.2% insoluble nitrocellulose, 29.8% soluble nitrocellulose gelatinized with ether and 2% paraffin. "Poudre B" is made up of very small paper-thin flakes that are not white but dark greenish grey in color
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Rifling
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting. This spin serves to gyroscopically stabilize the projectile by conservation of angular momentum, improving its aerodynamic stability and accuracy over smoothbore designs. Rifling
Rifling
is often described by its twist rate, which indicates the distance the rifling takes to complete one full revolution, such as "1 turn in 10 inches" (1:10 inches), or "1 turn in 254 mm" (1:254 mm)
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Primer (firearm)
In firearms, the primer (/ˈpraɪmər/) is a component of handgun and rifle cartridges and shotgun shells, and is responsible for initiating the propellant combustion that will push the projectiles out of the gun barrel. Early primers were simply the same black powder used to fire muzzleloaders but poured into an external flash pan, where it could be ignited by an ignition source such as a slow match or a flintlock. This external powder was connected through a small opening at the rear of the gun barrel that led to the main charge within the barrel. As gunpowder will not burn when wet, this made it difficult (or even impossible) to fire these types of weapons in rainy or humid conditions. Modern primers are made of shock-sensitive chemicals
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Small Arms Ammunition Pressure Testing
Small arms ammunition pressure testing is used to establish standards for maximum average peak pressures of chamberings, as well as determining the safety of particular loads for the purposes of new load development. In metallic cartridges, peak pressure can vary based on propellant used, primers used, charge weight, projectile type, projectile seating depth, neck tension, chamber throat/leade parameters. In shotshells, the primary factors are charge weight, projectile weight, wad type, hull construction, and crimp quality.Contents1 Modern civilian test methodologies1.1 C.I.P. method 1.2 SAAMI method 1.3 Shotshell ammunition method 1.4 External stress gauge2 Military test methodologies2.1 NATO EPVAT 2.2 US military SCATP3 See also 4 References 5 External linksModern civilian test methodologies[edit] The two modern standardized test methodologies in use are the Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives or C.I.P
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Cartridge (weaponry)
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) in a metallic, paper or plastic cartridge that fits the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and shooting.[1] Although in popular usage the term "bullet" is often used to refer to a complete cartridge, it is correctly used only to refer to the projectile. Cartridges can be categorized by the type of their primers — a small charge of an impact- or electric-sensitive chemical mixture that is located at the center of the case head (centerfire), inside the rim of the case base (rimfire and the now obsolete cupfire), in a sideway projection that is shaped like pin (pinfire, now obsolete) or a lip (lipfire, now obsolete), or in a small nipple-like bulge at the case base (teat-fire, now obsolete). Military and commercial producers continue t
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Smokeless Powder
Smokeless powder
Smokeless powder
is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced
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Rim (firearms)
A rim is an external flange that is machined, cast, molded, stamped or pressed around the bottom of a firearms cartridge. Thus, rimmed cartridges are sometimes called "flanged" cartridges. Almost all cartridges feature an extractor or headspacing rim, in spite of the fact that some cartridges are known as "rimless cartridges"
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John Rigby & Company
John Rigby & Company (or John Rigby & Co. (Gunmakers) Ltd) is a gunmaking firm founded by John Rigby in 1775 in Dublin. The company was established by the first John Rigby in Dublin, Ireland, apparently in 1775; his grandson, also John, opened a London branch in 1865; and Dublin operations had ceased by February 1897. The Company is now owned by Lüke & Ortmeier Gruppe, and is based in Vauxhall, central London, under the supervision of Managing Director, Marc Newton. John Rigby & Co. builds rifles based on Mauser barrelled actions, and double rifles based on its Rigby-Bissell 1879 Patent rising-bite action
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Spain Under The Restoration
The Restoration (Spanish: Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic
First Spanish Republic
and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. After almost a whole century of political instability and many civil wars, the aim of the Restoration was to create a new political system, which ensured stability by the practice of turnismo. This was the deliberate rotation of the Liberal and Conservative parties in the government, so no sector of the bourgeoisie felt isolated, while all other parties were excluded from the system. This was achieved by electoral fraud
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Smokeless Propellant
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced
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8mm Lebel
The 8×50mmR Lebel (8mm Lebel) (designated as the 8 × 51 R Lebel by the C.I.P.[1]) rifle cartridge was the first smokeless powder cartridge to be made and adopted by any country. It was introduced by France in 1886. Formed by necking down the 11mm Gras black powder cartridge, the smokeless 8 mm Lebel cartridge started a revolution in military rifle ammunition. Standard 8mm Lebel military ammunition was also the first rifle ammunition to feature a spitzer boat tail bullet (Balle D), which was adopted in 1898.[3] The long-range ballistic performance of the 8mm Lebel bullet itself was exceptional. For use in the magazine tube-fed early Lebel rifle, the 8mm case was designed to protect against accidental percussion inside the tube magazine by a circular groove around the primer cup which caught the tip of the following pointed bullet
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.308 Winchester
The .308 Winchester
.308 Winchester
(pronounced: "three-oh-eight") is a rimless, bottlenecked rifle cartridge and is the commercial cartridge from which the 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
round was derived. The .308 Winchester
.308 Winchester
was introduced in 1952, two years prior to the NATO
NATO
adoption of the 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
T65. Winchester branded the cartridge and introduced it to the commercial hunting market as the .308 Winchester. Winchester's Model 70 and Model 88 rifles were subsequently chambered for the new cartridge. Since then, the .308 Winchester
.308 Winchester
has become the most popular short-action, big-game hunting cartridge worldwide.[2] It is also commonly used for civilian hunting, target shooting, metallic silhouette, bench rest target shooting, palma, metal matches, military sniping, and police sharpshooting
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Box Magazine
A magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating firearm. Magazines can be removable (detachable) or integral (internal/fixed) to the firearm. The magazine functions by moving the cartridges stored within it into a position where they may be loaded into the barrel chamber by the action of the firearm. The detachable magazine is often colloquially referred to as a clip, although this is technically inaccurate.[1][2][3] Magazines come in many shapes and sizes, from tubular magazines on lever-action rifles that hold only a few rounds,[not in citation given] to detachable box and drum magazines for automatic rifles and machine guns that can hold more than one hundred rounds
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Milliliter
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l,[1] sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume [2] — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,[3] although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3)
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