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43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division
The 43rd (Wessex) Infantry
Infantry
Division was an infantry division of the British Army. The division served with distinction in the Second World War on the Western Front from June 1944 until May 1945, suffering heavy casualties but gaining an excellent reputation and was known to the Germans as the Yellow Devils. The division was disbanded and again reformed in the Territorial Army (TA) after the war
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK)[15] or Britain,[note 11] is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands.[16] Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland
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British Raj
Indian languagesGovernment ColonyMonarch of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Emperor/Empressa •  1858–1901 Victoria •  1901–1910 Edward VII •  1910–1936 George V •  1936 Edward VIII •  1936–1947 George VI Viceroy
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General Officer Commanding
The General Officer
General Officer
Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer
General Officer
who holds a command appointment. Thus, a General might be the GOC British II Corps or GOC British 7th Armoured Division. A General Officer
General Officer
heading a particularly large or important command, such as Middle East Command or the Allied Armies in Italy, may be called a General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C). The equivalent term for naval officers is Flag Officer Commanding (FOC) and that for Air Force officers is Air Officer Commanding (AOC). In the United States Armed Forces, the equivalent is Commanding General (CG).This United Kingdom
United Kingdom
military article is a stub
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Bernard Montgomery
First World War Anglo-Irish War Arab revolt in Palestine Second World WarBattle of FranceBattle of Dunkirk Dunkirk evacuationNorth African CampaignBattle of Alam el Halfa Second Battle of El Alamein Battle of El AgheilaTunisian CampaignBattle of Medenine Battle of the Mareth LineSicilian Campaign Italian Campaign Western FrontOperation Overlord Battle for Caen Operation Goodwood Operation Cobra Battle of the Falaise Pocket Siegfried Line Campaign Operation Market Garden Clearing the Channel Coast Battle of the Bulge Operation VeritableInvasion of GermanyOperation Varsity Operation PlunderPalestine EmergencyAwards Knight of the Order of the Garter Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Distinguished Service Order
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Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom)
Lieutenant general
Lieutenant general
(Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army
British Army
and the Royal Marines. It is the equivalent of a multinational three-star rank; some British lieutenant generals sometimes wear three-star insignia, in addition to their standard insignia, when on multinational operations. Lieutenant general
Lieutenant general
is a superior rank to major general, but subordinate to a (full) general. The rank has a NATO
NATO
rank code of OF-8, equivalent to a vice-admiral in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and an air marshal in the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) and the air forces of many Commonwealth countries. The rank insignia for both the Army and the Royal Marines
Royal Marines
is a crown over a crossed sabre and baton
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Operation Barbarossa
Frontline strength (initial)3.8 million personnel[1][2] 3,350–3,795 tanks[3][1][4][5] 3,030–3,072 other AFVs[6][7] 2,770–5,369 aircraft[3][8] 7,200–23,435 artillery pieces[1][3][5] 17,081 mortars[5]Frontline strength (initial)2.6–2.9 million personnel[9][10][11] 11,000 tanks[12][13] 7,133–9,100 military aircraft[14][15][16]Casualties and lossesTotal military casualties: 1,000,000+BreakdownCasualties of 1941:According to German Army medical reports (including Army Norway):[17]186,452 killed 40,157 missing 655,179 wounded in action[a] 8,000 evacuated sick2,827 aircraft destroyed[18] 2,735 tanks destroyed[4][19] 104 assault guns destroyed[4][19]Other involved country losses 114,000+ casualties (at least 39,000 dead or missing)[b] 8,700 casualties[c] 5,000+ casualties[d]Total military casualties: 4,973,820BreakdownCasualties of 1941:Based on Soviet archives:[21]
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Operation Sea Lion
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion[2][3] (German: Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
in the Second World War. Following the Fall of France, Adolf Hitler, the German Führer
Führer
and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, hoped the British government would seek a peace agreement and he reluctantly considered invasion only as a last resort if all other options failed. As a precondition, he specified the achievement of both air and naval superiority over the English Channel
English Channel
and the proposed landing sites, but the German forces did not achieve either at any point during the war, and both the German High Command and Hitler himself had serious doubts about the prospects for success
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Dunkirk Evacuation
Allied successEvacuation of 338,226 soldiersBelligerents United Kingdom British India[1] France French Senegal[2] Morocco Belgium[3] Canada[4] Netherlands[5] Poland[3] GermanyCommanders and leaders Lord Gort Bertram Ramsay Harold Alexander William Tennant J. M
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Battle Of Dunkirk
German tactical victorySuccess of Operation Dynamo Allies evacuate approx. 85% of stranded troopsTerritorial changes Allied forces withdraw to BritainBelligerents United Kingdom British India[1] France Morocco Poland  Belgium  Canada  Netherlands[2]  GermanyCommanders and leaders Lord Gort Maxime Weygand Georges Blanchard René Prioux J. M. Abrial[4] Gerd von Rundstedt Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist)Strengthapprox. 400,000 338,226 evacuated[5] approx
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Battle Of France
 France French colonial empire Belgium  United Kingdom  Canada  Netherlands  Luxembourg Poland CzechoslovakiaCommanders and leaders Walther von Brauchitsch Gerd von Rundstedt Fedor von Bock Wilhelm von Leeb Albert Kesselring Hugo Sperrle Heinz Guderian Umberto di Savoia Maurice Gamelin
Maurice Gamelin
(until 17 May) Alphonse Georges
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British Expeditionary Force (World War II)
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe
Western Europe
from 1939 to 1940 during the Second World War. In the 1930s, the British government had planned to deter war by rearming from the very low level of readiness of the early 1930s. The first step was the abolition of the Ten Year Rule but the bulk of the extra money went to the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF). Plans had been made to re-equip a small number of Regular and Territorial divisions, potentially for service overseas. The BEF had been established in 1938, in readiness for war, after Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss
Anschluss
of March 1938 and made claims on Sudetenland
Sudetenland
in Czechoslovakia, that led to the Munich Agreement
Munich Agreement
(30 September 1938)
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Wessex (Hampshire) Heavy Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery
The Wessex (Hampshire) Heavy Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery
Royal Garrison Artillery
was a volunteer unit of the British Territorial Force
Territorial Force
formed in 1908. It fought on the Western Front during World War I.Contents1 Origin 2 Mobilisation 3 Home service 4 Western Front 5 Postwar 6 Notes 7 ReferencesOrigin[edit]Drill hall and headquarters in Cosham, photographed in 2014When the Territorial Force
Territorial Force
was created from the Volunteer Force
Volunteer Force
in 1908 by the Haldane Reforms, each infantry division was allocated a heavy battery of the Royal Garrison Artillery
Royal Garrison Artillery
(RGA). One company of the former 2nd Hampshire Royal Garrison Artillery
Royal Garrison Artillery
(Volunteers) was allocated to this role with the Wessex Division
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1st Devonshire Artillery Volunteers
The 1st Devonshire
Devonshire
Artillery Volunteers and its successor units served in the British Army's Reserve Forces from 1859 to 1961. During World War I it carried out garrison duty in British India but went on to see active service in the Third Anglo-Afghan War
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Royal Field Artillery
The Royal Field Artillery
Royal Field Artillery
(RFA) of the British Army
British Army
provided close artillery support for the infantry.[1] It came into being when created as a distinct arm of the Royal Regiment of Artillery
Royal Regiment of Artillery
on 1 July 1899, and was re-amalgamated back into the Regiment proper, along with the Royal Garrison Artillery, in 1924.[2] The Royal Field Artillery
Royal Field Artillery
was the largest arm of the artillery. It was responsible for the medium calibre guns and howitzers deployed close to the front line and was reasonably mobile
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130th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)
The 130th Infantry
Infantry
Brigade
Brigade
was an infantry brigade of the British Army. During World War I
World War I
the brigade served in British India throughout the war and did not see service together as a complete unit
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