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4 Wheel Drive
FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD refers to type of a vehicle, specifically one with its drivetrain capable of providing torque to all wheel ends of a two-axled vehicle simultaneously. It may be full-time, or on-demand, and is typically linked via a transfer case which provides an additional output drive-shaft, along with additional gear ranges . When a four-wheeled vehicle has torque supplied to both axles, this is described as "all-wheel drive" (AWD) . However, "four-wheel drive" typically refers to a set of specific components and functions, and/or intended offroad application, which generally complies with modern use of the terminology
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Four-wheel Drive (other)
A FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE vehicle is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously. The term may also refer to: * Four Wheel Drive , a vehicle manufacturer * Four Wheel Drive (album) , a 1975 album by Bachman–Turner Overdrive * Four-wheel driving, the sport of off-roading * Four-wheel drive in Formula One This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Four-wheel_drive_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Four By Four (other)
FOUR BY FOUR or 4X4 refers to a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously. It may also refer to: FILM, TV AND GAMES * 4x4 (film) , a 1965 Nordic film * "4 x 4" (CSI) , a 2005 episode of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation * 4x4 (telenovela) , a 2008 Argentine telenovela * Rubik\'s Revenge , the 4x4x4 version of the Rubik's CubeMUSIC * 4x4 (band) , a Ghanaian band * 4x4 Garage , an electronic music genre * 4x4 (Carla Bley album) , released in 2000 * 4x4 (Casiopea album) , released in 1982 * 4x4 (Granger Smith album) , released in 2015 * "4x4" (song) , by Miley Cyrus * "4x4", a 2001 song by Boiler Room OTHER USES * 4x4 (pronounced 4 by 4), colloquial British English usually for a sport utility vehicle (SUV) * 4x4, the codename for the AMD Quad FX platform * Four-by-four or 4x4, a size of lumber This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title FOUR BY FOUR. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Four_by_four_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Jeep Wrangler
The JEEP WRANGLER is a compact and mid-size (Wrangler Unlimited models) four-wheel drive off-road vehicle manufactured by Jeep , currently in its third generation. The Wrangler is arguably an indirect progression from the World War II Willys MB through the Willys civilian Jeeps ( Jeep CJ ) of the mid-1940s through 1980s that were produced by Kaiser- Jeep and by American Motors Corporation (AMC). Neither AMC nor Chrysler (after it purchased AMC in 1987) have claimed that the Wrangler was a direct descendant of the original military model
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Drivetrain
The DRIVETRAIN of a motor vehicle is the group of components that deliver power to the driving wheels. This excludes the engine or motor that generates the power. In contrast, the powertrain is considered to include both the engine or motor and the drivetrain. The market for drivetrain components is economically important and is estimated to reach US$314.4 billion by 2019. Market value by layout is approximately half for front-wheel drive, with a quarter each for rear-wheel drive (mostly in light commercial vehicles and trucks) and all-wheel drive. CONTENTS * 1 Function * 2 Components * 2.1 Manual transmission car * 2.2 Automatic transmission car * 2.3 Front-wheel drive car * 2.4 Four-wheel drive off-road vehicle * 3 See also * 4 References FUNCTIONThe function of the drivetrain is to couple the engine that produces the power to the driving wheels that use this mechanical power to rotate the axle. This connection involves physically linking the two components, which may be at opposite ends of the vehicle and so requiring a long propeller shaft or drive shaft . The operating speed of the engine and wheels are also different and must be matched by the correct gear ratio . As the vehicle speed changes, the ideal engine speed must remain approximately constant for efficient operation and so this gearbox ratio must also be changed, either manually, automatically or by an automatic continuous variation
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Torque
TORQUE, MOMENT, or MOMENT OF FORCE (see "Defining Terminology" below) is rotational force . Just as a linear force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the vector by which the force's application point is offset relative to the fixed suspension point (distance vector ) and the force vector, which tends to produce rotational motion. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel . For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically {displaystyle tau } _, the lowercase Greek letter tau _. When it is called moment of force, it is commonly denoted by _M_. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the _lever arm_ connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm
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Transfer Case
A TRANSFER CASE is a part of the drivetrain of four-wheel-drive , all-wheel-drive , and other multiple powered axle vehicles. The transfer case transfers power from the transmission to the front and rear axles by means of drive shafts . It also synchronizes the difference between the rotation of the front and rear wheels, and may contain one or more sets of low range gears for off-road use. CONTENTS * 1 Functions * 2 Types * 2.1 Drive type * 2.1.1 Gear-driven * 2.1.2 Chain-driven * 2.2 Housing type * 2.2.1 Married * 2.2.2 Divorced/independent * 2.3 Transfer case shift type * 2.3.1 M.S.O.F. * 2.3.2 E.S.O.F. * 3 See also * 4 References FUNCTIONS * The transfer case receives power from the transmission and sends it to both the front and rear axles. This can be done with gears, hydraulics, or chain drive. On some vehicles, such as four-wheel-drive trucks or vehicles intended for off-road use, this feature is controlled by the driver. The driver can put the transfer case into either "two-wheel-drive" or "four-wheel-drive" mode. This is sometimes accomplished by means of a shifter , similar to that in a manual transmission . On some vehicles this may be electronically operated by a switch instead. Some vehicles, such as all-wheel-drive sports cars, have transfer cases that are not selectable
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Gear Range
CONTENTS * 1 Addendum * 2 Addendum angle * 3 Addendum circle * 4 Pressure Angle * 5 Apex to back * 6 Back angle * 7 Back cone * 8 Back cone distance * 9 Backlash * 10 Base circle * 11 Base cylinder * 12 Base diameter * 13 Bevel gear
Bevel gear
* 14 Bull gear * 15 Center distance * 16 Central plane * 17 Composite action test * 18 Cone distance * 19 Conjugate gears * 20 Crossed helical gear * 21 Crossing point * 22 Crown circle * 23 Crowned teeth * 24 Dedendum angle * 25 Equivalent pitch radius * 26 Face (tip) angle * 27 Face cone * 28 Face gear * 29 Face width * 30 Form diameter * 31 Front angle * 32 Front cone * 33
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AWD (vehicle)
An ALL-WHEEL DRIVE VEHICLE (AWD VEHICLE) is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand. The most common forms of all-wheel drive are: 4×4
4×4
(also, four-wheel drive and 4WD) Reflecting two axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered. 6×6 (also, six-wheel drive and 6WD) Reflecting three axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered. 8×8 (also, eight-wheel drive and 8WD) Reflecting four axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered. Vehicles may be either part-time all-wheel drive or full-time: On-demand (also, part-time) One axle is permanently connected to the drive, the other is being connected as needed Full-time (also, permanent) All axles are permanently connected, with or without a differential . CONTENTS * 1 Usage of the terminology * 2 Characteristics * 3 See also * 4 References USAGE OF THE TERMINOLOGYToday, the designation AWD is becoming narrowed, particularly in North America, to apply to vehicles with drive train systems that have permanent drive and usually include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. However, the designations AWD and all-wheel drive long predated the trend, with Associated Equipment Company (AEC) building AWD trucks in conjunction with FWD (UK) in 1929, and General Motors manufacturing a line as "all-wheel drive" as early as the late 1930s
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SAE International
INTERNATIONAL mostly means something (a company , language , or organization ) involving more than a single country . The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. For example, international law , which is applied by more than one country and usually everywhere on Earth , and international language which is a language spoken by residents of more than one country. CONTENTS * 1 Origin of the word * 2 Meaning in particular fields * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Sources ORIGIN OF THE WORDThe term _international_ was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham in his _Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation _, which was printed for publication in 1780 and published in 1789. Bentham wrote: "The word _international_, it must be acknowledged, is a new one; though, it is hoped, sufficiently analogous and intelligible. It is calculated to express, in a more significant way, the branch of law which goes commonly under the name of the _law of nations _. The word was adopted in French in 1801
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Front-wheel Drive
FRONT-WHEEL DRIVE (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles , where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel-drive vehicles feature a transverse engine , rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel drive vehicles. CONTENTS * 1 Front-wheel-drive arrangements * 2 History * 2.1 Prior to 1900 * 2.2 Société Parisienne - Victoria Combination * 2.3 1900 – 1920 * 2.4 1920 – 1930 * 2.5 1930 – 1945 * 2.6 1945 – 1960 * 2.7 1960 – 1975 * 2.7.1 Giacosa innovation * 2.8 1975 – 1990 * 2.9 1990 – present * 3 Records * 4 See also * 5 References FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE ARRANGEMENTSMost FWD layouts are front-engined. Rear-engined layouts are possible, but rare. Historically they fall into three categories: * Front-engine transversely mounted/ Front-wheel drive * Front-engine longitudinally mounted/ Front-wheel drive * Front Mid-engine/ Front-wheel drive HISTORY _ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2007)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_PRIOR TO 1900Experiments with front-wheel-drive cars date to the early days of the automobile
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Rear-wheel Drive
In automotive design , the AUTOMOBILE LAYOUT describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, and the location of each is dependent on the application for which the vehicle will be used. Factors influencing the design choice include cost, complexity, reliability, packaging (location and size of the passenger compartment and boot ), weight distribution , and the vehicle's intended handling characteristics . Layouts can roughly be divided into two categories: front- or rear-wheel drive. Four-wheel-drivevehicles may take on the characteristics of either, depending on how power is distributed to the wheels. CONTENTS* 1 Front-wheel-drive layouts * 1.1 Characteristics * 1.2 Advantages * 1.3 Disadvantages * 2 Rear-wheel-drive layouts * 2.1 Characteristics * 2.2 Advantages * 2.3 Disadvantages * 3 Four-wheel-drivelayouts * 3.1 Advantages * 3.2 Disadvantages * 3.3 Unusual 4WD layouts * 4 History and current use * 5 See also * 6 References FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE LAYOUTS Main article: front-wheel drive FF layout Front-wheel-drive layouts are those in which the front wheels of the vehicle are driven. The most popular layout used in cars today is the front-engine, front-wheel drive, with the engine in front of the front axle, driving the front wheels
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6×4 (drivetrain)
A 6×4 DRIVETRAIN (SIX-BY-FOUR) is a vehicle with a drivetrain of three axles delivering power to two wheel ends on two of them. It is a form of four-wheel drive but not one of all-wheel drive . It is the most common form of drivetrain of semi-tractors and heavy haul fixed-chassis cargo trucks . SEE ALSO * Four-wheel drive * Six-wheel drive REFERENCES * ^ International ProStar ES Class 8 truck: Axle configurations * ^ A B NACFE (North American Council for Freight Efficiency) Executive Report – 6x2 (Dead Axle) Tractors "A typical three axle Class 8 tractor today is equipped with two rear drive axles (“live” tandem) and is commonly referred to as a 6 X 4 configuration meaning that it has four-wheel drive capability." Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=6×4_(drivetrain) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Six-wheel Drive
SIX-WHEEL DRIVE (6WD or 6×6) is an all-wheel drive drivetrain configuration of three axles with at least two wheels on each axle capable of being driven simultaneously by the vehicle's engine. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, the configuration is largely confined to heavy-duty off-road and military vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles , armored vehicles , and prime movers . 6-wheel British-manufactured military Alvis Stalwart 6×6 with three evenly spaced axles and full-time 6x6 H-drive When such a vehicle only has six wheels by definition all are driven. When it has ten – with two pairs of ganged "dual" wheels on each rear axle as on a GMC CCKW – all are also driven but the 6×6 designation remains. For most military applications where traction/mobility are considered more important than payload capability, single wheels on each axle (often referred to as super singles) are the norm. Heavy hauler and ballast tractor 6×6s have had a long history as prime movers both in the military (as tank transports and artillery tractors ), and commercially in logging and heavy equipment hauling both on- and off-road . Most six-wheel drive vehicles have a forward axle and two at the rear (with only the front pair steering), or three evenly spaced in varying steering configurations
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Two-wheel Tractor
TWO-WHEEL TRACTOR or WALKING TRACTOR French : _motoculteur_ German : _Einachsschlepper oder Bodenfräse_ are generic terms understood in the USA and in parts of Europe to represent a SINGLE-AXLE TRACTOR, which is a tractor with one axle , self-powered and self-propelled, which can pull and power various farm implements such as a trailer, cultivator or harrow , a plough , or various seeders and harvesters. The operator usually walks behind it or rides the implement being towed. Similar terms are mistakenly applied to the household rotary tiller or power tiller; although these may be wheeled and/or self-propelled, they are not tailored for towing implements. A two-wheeled tractor specializes in pulling any of numerous types of implements, whereas rotary tillers specialize in soil tillage with their dedicated digging tools. This article concerns two-wheeled tractors as distinguished from such tillers. CONTENTS * 1 Confusion over definition * 2 History * 2.1 Europe * 2.2 United States * 2.3 Japan * 2.4 Thailand
Thailand
* 2.5 Sri Lanka * 2.6 India * 2.7 Bangladesh * 2.8 Philippines
Philippines
* 2.9 Elsewhere * 3 Safety of two-wheel tractors * 4 Current two-wheel tractor manufacturers in Asia * 4.1 China * 4.1.1 Changzhou Dongfeng Agricultural Machinery Group Co. * 4.1.2 Zhejiang Sifang Group * 4.1.3 Linshu Mingsin Machinery Co., Ltd
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8×8
EIGHT-WHEEL DRIVE, often notated as 8WD or 8×8, is a drivetrain configuration that allows all eight wheels of an eight-wheeled vehicle to be drive wheels (that is, to receive power from the engine) simultaneously. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, the configuration is largely confined to heavy-duty off-road and military vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, armored vehicles , and prime movers . Other types of smaller 8x8 vehicles include such things as the Argocat . When such a vehicle only has eight wheels by definition all are driven. When it has twelve – with two pairs of ganged "dual" wheels on each rear axle – all are also driven but the 8×8 designation remains. Very occasionally, on the Sterling T26 for example, the two front axles can be fitted with ganged "dual" wheels. For most military applications where traction/mobility are considered more important than payload capability, single wheels on each axle (often referred to as super singles) are the norm. On some vehicles, usually recovery trucks or heavy tractor units , the rear two axles will have wider single tires than the front two axles. Heavy hauler and ballast tractor 8×8s have had a long history as prime movers both in the military (as tank transports and artillery tractors ), and commercially in logging and heavy equipment hauling both on- and off-road
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