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4 Wheel Drive
FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD refers to type of a vehicle, specifically one with its drivetrain capable of providing torque to all wheel ends of a two-axled vehicle simultaneously. It may be full-time, or on-demand, and is typically linked via a transfer case which provides an additional output drive-shaft, along with additional gear ranges . When a four-wheeled vehicle has torque supplied to both axles, this is described as "all-wheel drive" (AWD) . However, "four-wheel drive" typically refers to a set of specific components and functions, and/or intended offroad application, which generally complies with modern use of the terminology
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Shear Stress
A SHEAR STRESS, often denoted τ (Greek : tau ), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. Shear stress
Shear stress
arises from the force vector component parallel to the cross section. Normal stress , on the other hand, arises from the force vector component perpendicular to the material cross section on which it acts. Shear stress
Shear stress
arises from shear forces, which are pairs of equal and opposite forces acting on opposite sides of an object
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Multi-plate Clutch
A CLUTCH is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power transmission especially from driving shaft to driven shaft. In the simplest application, clutches connect and disconnect two rotating shafts (drive shafts or line shafts ). In these devices, one shaft is typically attached to an engine or other power unit (the driving member) while the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power for work. While typically the motions involved are rotary, linear clutches are also possible. In a torque-controlled drill , for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill chuck
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Dilatant
A DILATANT (also termed SHEAR THICKENING) material is one in which viscosity increases with the rate of shear strain . Such a shear thickening fluid, also known by the initialism STF, is an example of a non-Newtonian fluid . This behaviour is usually not observed in pure materials, but can occur in suspensions . A dilatant is a Non-Newtonian fluid
Non-Newtonian fluid
where the shear viscosity increases with applied shear stress . This behavior is only one type of deviation from Newton’s Law, and it is controlled by such factors as particle size, shape, and distribution. The properties of these suspensions depend on Hamaker theory and Van der Waals forces and can be stabilized electrostatically or sterically. Shear thickening behavior occurs when a colloidal suspension transitions from a stable state to a state of flocculation
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Exponential Growth
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH is feasible when the growth rate of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its growth with time being an exponential function , i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent. Exponential decay occurs in the same way when the growth rate is negative. In the case of a discrete domain of definition with equal intervals, it is also called GEOMETRIC GROWTH or GEOMETRIC DECAY, the function values forming a geometric progression . In either exponential growth or exponential decay, the ratio of the rate of change of the quantity to its current size remains constant over time. The formula for exponential growth of a variable x at the growth rate r, as time t goes on in discrete intervals (that is, at integer times 0, 1, 2, 3, ...), is x t = x 0 ( 1 + r ) t {displaystyle x_{t}=x_{0}(1+r)^{t}} where x0 is the value of x at time 0
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Traction Control System
A TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM (TCS), also known as ASR (from German ANTRIEBSSCHLUPFREGELUNG, ENGINE SLIPPAGE REGULATION), is typically (but not necessarily) a secondary function of the electronic stability control (ESC) on production motor vehicles , designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheels. TCS is activated when throttle input and engine torque are mismatched to road surface conditions
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Locking Differential
A LOCKING DIFFERENTIAL, DIFFERENTIAL LOCK, DIFF LOCK or LOCKER is a variation on the standard automotive differential . A locking differential may provide increased traction compared to a standard, or "open" differential by restricting each of the two wheels on an axle to the same rotational speed without regard to available traction or differences in resistance seen at each wheel. A locking differential is designed to overcome the chief limitation of a standard open differential by essentially "locking" both wheels on an axle together as if on a common shaft. This forces both wheels to turn in unison, regardless of the traction (or lack thereof) available to either wheel individually. When the differential is unlocked (open differential), it allows each wheel to rotate at different speeds (such as when negotiating a turn), thus avoiding tire scuffing. An open (or unlocked) differential always provides the same torque (rotational force) to each of the two wheels, on that axle
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Limited-slip Differential
A LIMITED-SLIP DIFFERENTIAL is a type of differential that allows its two output shafts to rotate at different speeds but limits the maximum difference between the two shafts In an automobile, such limited-slip differentials are sometimes used in place of a standard differential, where they convey certain dynamic advantages, at the expense of greater complexity
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Differential (mechanics)
A DIFFERENTIAL is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the angular velocity of one shaft is the average of the angular velocities of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Epicyclic differential * 4 Spur-gear differential * 5 Non-automotive applications * 6 Application to vehicles * 7 Functional description * 8 Loss of traction * 9 Active differentials * 10 Automobiles without differentials * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links OVERVIEW Automotive differential: The drive gear 2 is mounted on the carrier 5 which supports the planetary bevel gears 4 which engage the driven bevel gears 3 attached to the axles 1. ZF Differential. The drive shaft enters from the front and the driven axles run left and right
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Driveshaft
A DRIVE SHAFT, DRIVESHAFT, DRIVING SHAFT, PROPELLER SHAFT (PROP SHAFT), or CARDAN SHAFT is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress , equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load. They must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia . To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts frequently incorporate one or more universal joints , jaw couplings , or rag joints , and sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint
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Angular Velocity
In physics , the ANGULAR VELOCITY of a body is the rate of change of its angular displacement with respect to time, and in three-dimensional space is a pseudovector quantity that specifies the rotational speed of an object and the orientation of the rotating. The SI unit of angular velocity is radians per second . Angular velocity is usually represented by the symbol omega (ω, rarely Ω). When the angular velocity is represented as a vector, its direction is perpendicular to the plane of rotation, with its orientation conventionally specified by the right-hand rule
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Ring Gear
An EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN consists of two gears mounted so that the center of one gear revolves around the center of the other. A carrier connects the centers of the two gears and rotates to carry one gear, called the planet gear, around the other, called the sun gear. The planet and sun gears mesh so that their pitch circles roll without slip. A point on the pitch circle of the planet gear traces an epicycloid curve. In this simplified case, the sun gear is fixed and the planetary gear(s) roll around the sun gear. An epicyclic gear train can be assembled so the planet gear rolls on the inside of the pitch circle of a fixed, outer gear ring, or ring gear, sometimes called an annular gear. In this case, the curve traced by a point on the pitch circle of the planet is a hypocycloid . The combination of epicycle gear trains with a planet engaging both a sun gear and a ring gear is called a planetary gear train
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Bramah Joseph Diplock
BRAMAH JOSEPH DIPLOCK was an English inventor who invented the pedrail wheel in 1903 and the pedrail chaintrack, a type of caterpillar track, in 1910. PEDRAIL TRANSPORT COMPANYDiplock founded the Pedrail Transport Company of Fulham which was, before World War I
World War I
, the only British company to manufacture "caterpillar" continuous tracks . A demonstration of the system's ability to support a large load for trench warfare was made on 16 February 1915 to Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
, and may have been influential in the development of the tank . SEE ALSO * James Boydell NOTES * ^ Motor Vehicles for Business Purposes by A. J. Wallistayler p.271 * ^ Popular Science Sep 1933, p.96 * ^ Men, ideas, and tanks by J. P. Harris, p.18 * ^ Men, ideas, and tanks by J. P
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Traction Engine
A TRACTION ENGINE is a self-propelled steam engine used to move heavy loads on roads, plough ground or to provide power at a chosen location. The name derives from the Latin tractus, meaning 'drawn', since the prime function of any traction engine is to draw a load behind it. They are sometimes called ROAD LOCOMOTIVES to distinguish them from railway locomotives – that is, steam engines that run on rails. Traction engines tend to be large, robust and powerful, but heavy, slow, and difficult to manoeuvre. Nevertheless, they revolutionized agriculture and road haulage at a time when the only alternative prime mover was the draught horse . They became popular in industrialised countries from around 1850, when the first self-propelled portable steam engines for agricultural use were developed
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Brookville, Pennsylvania
BROOKVILLE is a borough in Jefferson County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, 100 miles (161 km) northeast of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
. 2,472 people lived in Brookville in 1900, and 3,003 people lived there in 1910. The population was 4,230 at the 2000 census. Founded in 1830, it is the county seat of Jefferson County CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Education * 5 Economy * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe area was initially settled in the late 1790s upon the arrival of brothers Joseph and Andrew Barnett, as well as their brother-in-law Samuel Scott, who together established the first settlement at the confluence of the Sandy Lick and Mill Creeks in the area now known as Port Barnett
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The Hague
THE HAGUE (/ðə ˈheɪɡ/ ; Dutch : Den Haag, pronounced ( listen ) or 's-Gravenhage ( listen )) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the capital of the province of South Holland . With a population of 520,704 inhabitants (as of 1 April 2016) and more than 1 million inhabitants including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Rotterdam
Rotterdam
. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area , with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague
The Hague
is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation
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