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30 St Mary Axe
30 ST MARY AXE (informally known as the GHERKIN and previously as the SWISS RE BUILDING) is a commercial skyscraper in London
London
's primary financial district, the City of London
London
. It was completed in December 2003 and opened in April 2004. With 41 stories it is 180 metres (591 ft) tall and stands on the former sites of the Baltic Exchange and Chamber of Shipping, which were extensively damaged in 1992 by the explosion of a bomb placed by the Provisional IRA in St Mary Axe , the street from which the tower takes its name. After plans to build the 92-storey Millennium Tower were dropped, 30 St Mary Axe was designed by Norman Foster and Arup Group and it was erected by Skanska , with construction commencing in 2001
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Zurich
ZüRICH or ZURICH (/ˈzjʊərᵻx, -ᵻk/ ) is the largest city in Switzerland
Switzerland
and the capital of the canton of Zürich
Zürich
. It is located in north-central Switzerland
Switzerland
at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich . The municipality has approximately 400,028 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich
Zürich
is a hub for railways, roads, and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the largest and busiest in the country. Permanently settled for about 2000 years, Zürich
Zürich
was founded by the Romans , who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum . However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6400 years ago
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Reinsurance
REINSURANCE is insurance that is purchased by an insurance company (the "ceding company" or "cedent" or "cedant" under the arrangement) from one or more insurance companies (the "reinsurer") directly or through a broker as a means of risk management , sometimes in practice including tax mitigation and other reasons described below. The ceding company and the reinsurer enter into a REINSURANCE AGREEMENT which details the conditions upon which the reinsurer would pay a share of the claims incurred by the ceding company. The reinsurer is paid a "reinsurance premium" by the ceding company, which issues insurance policies to its own policyholders. The reinsurer may be either a specialist reinsurance company, which only undertakes reinsurance business, or another insurance company. Insurance
Insurance
companies that sell reinsurance refer to the business as 'assumed reinsurance'
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English Heritage
ENGLISH HERITAGE (officially the ENGLISH HERITAGE TRUST) is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection. This comprises over 400 of England's historic buildings, monuments and sites spanning more than 5,000 years of history. Within its portfolio are Stonehenge
Stonehenge
, Dover Castle , Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrian\'s Wall . English Heritage
English Heritage
also manages the London Blue Plaques scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings. When originally formed in 1983, English Heritage
English Heritage
was the operating name of an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government , officially titled the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, that ran the national system of heritage protection and managed a range of historic properties
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Double Glazing
INSULATING GLASS (IG), more commonly known as DOUBLE GLAZING (or DOUBLE-PANE, and increasingly triple glazing /pane), consists of two or three glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope . Insulating glass units (IGUs) are manufactured with glass in range of thickness from 3 to 10 mm (1/8" to 3/8") or more in special applications. Laminated or tempered glass may also be used as part of the construction. Most units are produced with the same thickness of glass used on both panes but special applications such as acoustic attenuation or security may require wide ranges of thicknesses to be incorporated in the same unit. A sectioned diagram of a fixed insulating glass unit (IGU), indicating the numbering convention used in this article
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Convection
CONVECTION is the movement of groups of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids , including molten rock (rheid ). Convection takes place through advection , diffusion or both. Convection cannot take place in most solids because neither bulk current flows nor significant diffusion of matter can take place. Diffusion of heat takes place in rigid solids, but that is called heat conduction . Convection, however, can take place in soft solids or mixtures where solid particles can move past each other. Thermal convection can be demonstrated by placing a heat source (e.g. a Bunsen burner ) at the side of a glass full of a liquid, and observing the changes in temperature in the glass caused by the warmer ghost fluid circulating into cooler areas
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Insulated Glazing
INSULATING GLASS (IG), more commonly known as DOUBLE GLAZING (or DOUBLE-PANE, and increasingly triple glazing /pane), consists of two or three glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope . Insulating glass units (IGUs) are manufactured with glass in range of thickness from 3 to 10 mm (1/8" to 3/8") or more in special applications. Laminated or tempered glass may also be used as part of the construction. Most units are produced with the same thickness of glass used on both panes but special applications such as acoustic attenuation or security may require wide ranges of thicknesses to be incorporated in the same unit. A sectioned diagram of a fixed insulating glass unit (IGU), indicating the numbering convention used in this article
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Tallinn
TALLINN (/ˈtɑːlɪn/ or /ˈtælɪn/ , Estonian pronunciation: ; names in other languages ) is the capital and largest city of Estonia
Estonia
. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
, 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki
Helsinki
, east of Stockholm
Stockholm
and west of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in Harju County . From the 13th century until 1918 (and briefly during the Nazi occupation of Estonia
Estonia
from 1941 to 1944), the city was known as REVAL. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) and has a population of 445,480 . Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248, but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years
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London City Airport
LONDON CITY AIRPORT (IATA : LCY, ICAO : EGLC) is an international airport in London
London
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It is located in the Royal Docks in the London
London
Borough of Newham , approximately 6 NM (11 km; 6.9 mi) east of the City of London
London
and a shorter distance east of Canary Wharf . These are the twin centres of London's financial industry, which is a major user of the airport. The airport was developed by the engineering company Mowlem in 1986–87. In 2016 it was bought by a Canadian-led consortium of Alberta Investment Management Corporation (AIMCo), OMERS , the Ontario Teachers\' Pension Plan and Wren House Infrastructure Management of the Kuwait Investment Authority
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John Prescott
JOHN LESLIE PRESCOTT, BARON PRESCOTT (born 31 May 1938) is a British politician who was the Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007. Born in Prestatyn , Wales, he represented Hull East as the Labour member of parliament from 1970 to 2010 . In the 1994 leadership election , he stood for both Leader and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party , winning election to the latter office. He was appointed Deputy Prime Minister after Labour's victory in the 1997 election , with an expanded brief as Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions . A former ship\'s steward and trade union activist, by the 1990s he was presented as the political link to the working class in a Labour party increasingly led by modernising, middle-class professionals. In his youth he failed the eleven-plus exam entrance examination for grammar school , but went on to graduate from Ruskin College and the University of Hull
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Planning Permission
PLANNING PERMISSION or DEVELOPMENTAL APPROVAL refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion (including significant renovation ) in some jurisdictions. It is usually given in the form of a BUILDING PERMIT (or CONSTRUCTION PERMIT). Generally, the new construction must be inspected during construction and after completion to ensure compliance with national, regional, and local building codes . Planning
Planning
is also dependent on the site's zone – for example, one cannot obtain permission to build a nightclub in an area where it is inappropriate, such as a high-density suburb. Failure to obtain a permit can result in fines , penalties , and demolition of unauthorized construction if it cannot be made to meet code
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Deputy Prime Minister Of The United Kingdom
The DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER OF THE UNITED KINGDOM (DPM) is a senior member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom . The office of the Deputy Prime Minister is not a permanent position, existing only at the discretion of the Prime Minister , who may appoint to other offices – such as First Secretary of State – to give seniority to a particular Cabinet Minister. Unlike analogous offices in some other nations, such as a vice-presidency, the British deputy prime minister possesses no special constitutional powers as such, though they will always have particular responsibilities in government. They do not assume the duties and powers of the Prime Minister in the latter's absence, illness, or death, such as the powers to seek a dissolution of parliament , appoint peers or brief the sovereign . The Deputy Prime Minister does not automatically succeed the Prime Minister when the latter is incapacitated, or resigns from the leadership of his or her party
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Gherkin
A PICKLED CUCUMBER (commonly known as a PICKLE in the United States and Canada and a GHERKIN in Britain, Ireland, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine , vinegar , or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation
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Floor Plan
In architecture and building engineering , a FLOOR PLAN is a drawing to scale , showing a view from above, of the relationships between rooms, spaces and other physical features at one level of a structure. Dimensions are usually drawn between the walls to specify room sizes and wall lengths. Floor plans may also include details of fixtures like sinks, water heaters, furnaces, etc. Floor plans may include notes for construction to specify finishes, construction methods, or symbols for electrical items. It is also called a plan which is a measured plane typically projected at the floor height of 4 ft (1.2 m), as opposed to an elevation which is a measured plane projected from the side of a building, along its height, or a section or cross section where a building , is cut along an axis to reveal the interior structure
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GMW Architects
GMW ARCHITECTS was an architectural practice based in the United Kingdom . In August 2015, the firm was taken over by another business, Scott Brownrigg, "as part of plans to move into the airport sector." CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 BIM * 2 Current activities * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe practice was established in 1947 by Frank Gollins (1910–1999), James Melvin (1912–2012), and Edmund Ward (1912–98) and operated as GOLLINS MELVIN WARD. In the 1950s they designed the central campus for the University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield
and Castrol House, a tower on Marylebone Road in London
London
, notable as one of the first uses of curtain walling on a building in the United Kingdom
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Passive Solar Heating
In PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDING DESIGN, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices. The key to design a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate performing an accurate site analysis . Elements to be considered include window placement and size, and glazing type, thermal insulation , thermal mass , and shading. Passive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be adapted or "retrofitted"
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