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30 St Mary Axe
30 ST MARY AXE (informally known as the GHERKIN and previously as the SWISS RE BUILDING) is a commercial skyscraper in London
London
's primary financial district, the City of London
London
. It was completed in December 2003 and opened in April 2004. With 41 storeys, it is 180 metres (591 ft) tall and stands on the former sites of the Baltic Exchange and Chamber of Shipping, which were extensively damaged in 1992 by the explosion of a bomb placed by the Provisional IRA in St Mary Axe
St Mary Axe
, the street from which the tower takes its name. After plans to build the 92-storey Millennium Tower were dropped, 30 St Mary Axe
St Mary Axe
was designed by Norman Foster and Arup Group and it was erected by Skanska , with construction commencing in 2001. The building has become a recognisable feature of London
London
and is one of the city's most widely recognised examples of contemporary architecture
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Gherkin
A PICKLED CUCUMBER (commonly known as a PICKLE in the United States and Canada or generically as GHERKINS in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine , vinegar , or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation . CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Gherkin * 1.1.1 Cornichon * 1.2 Brined pickles * 1.3 Kosher
Kosher
dill (US) * 1.4 Polish * 1.5 Hungarian * 1.6 Korean * 1.7 Lime * 1.8 Bread and butter * 1.9 Cinnamon
Cinnamon
pickle * 1.10 Swedish and Danish * 1.11 Kool-Aid pickles * 2 Nutrition * 3 Serving * 4 Etymology * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links TYPESGHERKINA gherkin is a variety of cucumber: the West Indian or burr gherkin (_Cucumis anguria_), which produces a somewhat smaller fruit than the garden cucumber (_ Cucumis sativus _). Gherkins are cooked, eaten raw, or used as pickles. Gherkins are usually picked when 4 to 8 cm (1 to 3 in) in length and pickled in jars or cans with vinegar (often flavoured with herbs , particularly dill ; hence, "dill pickle") or brine. CornichonCornichons are tart French pickles made from small gherkins pickled in vinegar and tarragon . They traditionally accompany pâtés and cold cuts
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St Andrew Undershaft
ST ANDREW UNDERSHAFT is a Church of England
England
church in the City of London
London
, the historic nucleus and modern financial centre of London. It is located on St Mary Axe
St Mary Axe
, within the Aldgate ward, and is a rare example of a City church that survived both the Great Fire of London and the Blitz . The present building was constructed in 1532 but a church has existed on the site since the 12th century. Today, St Andrew Undershaft
St Andrew Undershaft
is administered from the nearby St Helen\'s Bishopsgate church. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Organ * 2.1 Organists * 3 Notable people associated with the church * 4 Notes * 5 See also HISTORY St Andrew Undershaft
St Andrew Undershaft
in 2001 The first church on the site, which today is bordered by St Mary Axe and Leadenhall Street , was built in medieval times , being recorded in 1147. It was rebuilt in the 14th century and again in 1532; this third incarnation of the building survives today. It is in the Perpendicular style with its entrance located at the base of its off-centre tower. The interior is divided into six bays, with many of the original fittings that survived Victorian renovation
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Leadenhall Street
LEADENHALL STREET (/ˈlɛdənˌhɔːl/ ) is a road in London that is about 0.3 miles (500 m) long and links Cornhill and Bishopsgate in the west to St. Botolph Street and Aldgate in the east. It is situated in the City of London
City of London
, which is the historic nucleus of modern London as well its primary financial district. It was formerly the start of the A11 road from London to Norwich
Norwich
, but that route now originates on Aldgate High Street , just east of Leadenhall Street. The Aldgate Pump is located at the east end of the street. During much of the 18th and 19th centuries its name was synonymous with the East India Company
East India Company
, which had its headquarters there. Today it is perhaps most widely associated with the insurance industry and particularly the Lloyd\'s insurance market , whose 1928-1958 building fronted onto the street, and whose current building since 1986 also has an entrance on Leadenhall Street. The nearest London Underground
London Underground
station is Aldgate (Circle and Metropolitan lines ), and the closest mainline railway station is Fenchurch Street
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Neo-futurism
NEO-FUTURISM is a late 20th–early 21st century movement in the arts , design , and architecture . It could be seen as a departure from the attitude of post-modernism and represents an idealistic belief in a better future and "a need to periodize the modern rapport with the technological". This avant-garde movement is a futuristic rethinking of the aesthetic and functionality of rapidly growing cities. The industrialization that began worldwide following the end of the Second World War gave wind to new streams of thought in life, art and architecture, leading to post-modernism, neo-modernism and then neo-futurism. In the Western countries, futurist architecture evolved into Art Deco , the Googie movement and high-tech architecture , and finally into Neo-Futurism. Neo-futuristic urbanists, architects, designers and artists believe in cities releasing emotions, driven by eco-sustainability , ethical values and implementing new materials and new technologies to provide a better quality of life for city-dwellers. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Definition * 3 People * 4 Gallery * 5 References * 6 Further reading ORIGINSPioneered in the late 1960s and early 70s by American architects Buckminster Fuller and John C
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St Mary Axe
ST MARY AXE was a medieval parish in the City of London
City of London
whose name survives as that of the street which it formerly occupied. The Church of St Mary Axe
Axe
was demolished in 1561 and its parish united with that of St Andrew Undershaft
St Andrew Undershaft
, which is situated on the corner of St Mary Axe
Axe
and Leadenhall Street . The site of the former church is now occupied by Fitzwilliam House, a fact acknowledged by a blue plaque on the building's façade. Nearby parishes include the medieval Great St Helen\'s (1210) and St Ethelburga (14th century). The street name may derive from a combination of the church dedicated to the Virgin Mary and a neighbouring tavern which prominently displayed a sign with an image of an axe , or simply from the church name itself, which may have come from the axes used by the Worshipful Company of Skinners , who were patrons. The sign of an axe is reported to have been present over the east end of the church. The street St Mary Axe
Axe
is now most notable for the Baltic Exchange at No. 38, and the "Gherkin" at No. 30, a distinctively shaped skyscraper built on the site of the former buildings of the Baltic Exchange and the UK Chamber of Shipping (destroyed by an IRA bomb in 1992)
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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EC Postcode Area
A POSTAL CODE (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a POSTCODE, POST CODE, EIRCODE, PIN CODE or ZIP CODE) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail . In February 2005, 117 of the 190 member countries of the Universal Postal Union had postal code systems. Although postal codes are usually assigned to geographical areas, special codes are sometimes assigned to individual addresses or to institutions that receive large volumes of mail, such as government agencies and large commercial companies. One example is the French CEDEX system
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Foster And Partners
FOSTER + PARTNERS is a British international studio for architecture and integrated design , with headquarters in London . The practice is led by its founder and Chairman, Norman Foster , and has constructed many high-profile glass -and-steel buildings. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Major projects * 2.1 Masterplans * 2.2 Bridges * 2.3 Government * 2.4 Cultural * 2.5 Higher education * 2.6 Sport * 2.7 Transportation * 2.8 Office * 2.9 Leisure * 2.10 Mixed use * 2.11 Residential * 2.12 Retail * 2.13 Current * 2.14 Selected works * 3 Awards * 4 Criticism * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYEstablished by Norman Foster as FOSTER ASSOCIATES in 1967 shortly after leaving Team 4 , the firm was renamed in the 1990s to more accurately reflect the influence of the other lead architects. In 2007 the private equity company 3i took a stake in the practice. This was bought back by the practice in June 2014 to become wholly owned by the 140 partners
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Arup Group Limited
ARUP (officially ARUP GROUP LIMITED) is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London which provides engineering, design, planning , project management and consulting services for all aspects of the built environment . The firm has over 14,000 staff based in 92 offices across 42 countries, and is present in Africa , the Americas, Australasia , East Asia, Europe and the Middle East . Arup has participated in projects in over 160 countries. Arup is owned by trusts , the beneficiaries of which are Arup's past and present employees, who receive a share of the firm's operating profit each year. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Notable projects * 2.1 Africa * 2.2 The Americas * 2.3 Asia * 2.4 Australia * 2.5 Europe * 2.6 Sports * 3 Awards * 4 Fellows * 5 Notable alumni and current staff * 6 Related companies * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe firm was founded in London in 1946, as the Ove N. Arup Consulting Engineers by Ove Arup . He set out to build a firm where professionals of diverse disciplines could work together to produce projects of greater quality than was achievable by them working in isolation. In 1963, together with the architect Philip Dowson , Arup Associates was formed
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Skanska
SKANSKA AB (Swedish pronunciation: ) is a multinational construction and development company based in Sweden. Skanska
Skanska
is the fifth largest construction company in the world according to the Construction
Construction
Global magazine. Notable Skanska
Skanska
projects include the World Trade Center Transportation Hub project, 30 St Mary Axe , MetLife Stadium
MetLife Stadium
, Mater Dei Hospital , among others. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Operations * 2.1 Environment * 2.2 Market * 2.3 Competitors * 2.3.1 Construction
Construction
* 2.3.2 Residential development * 2.3.3 Commercial property development * 3 Major projects * 3.1 Europe
Europe
* 3.2 United States
United States
* 4 Controversies * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYAKTIEBOLAGET SKåNSKA CEMENTGJUTERIET (Scanian Cement Casting Ltd) was established in Malmö , Sweden
Sweden
, in 1887 by Rudolf Fredrik Berg and started by manufacturing concrete products. It quickly diversified into a construction company and within 10 years the company received its first international order. The company played an important role in building Sweden’s infrastructure including its roads, power plants, offices and housing
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City Of London
The CITY OF LONDON is a city and county that contains the historic centre and central business district of London
London
. It constituted most of London
London
from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages , but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London
London
, though it remains a notable part of central London
London
. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London
London
; however, the City of London
London
is not a London
London
borough , a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster ). The City of London
London
is widely referred to simply as THE CITY (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising _City_) and is also colloquially known as the SQUARE MILE, as it is 1.12 sq mi (2.90 km2) in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City. The name _London_ is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City
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Baltic Exchange
The BALTIC EXCHANGE is a membership organisation for the maritime industry, and freight market information provider for the trading and settlement of physical and derivative contracts. It was located at 24–28 St Mary Axe, London, until that building was destroyed by a bomb in 1992 , and is now located at 38 St Mary Axe. It has further offices in Europe and across Asia. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Current management * 3 BIFFEX * 4 Premises * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEW Baltic Dry Index Its international community of over 600 member companies encompasses the majority of world shipping interests and commits to a code of business conduct overseen by the Baltic. Baltic Exchange members are responsible for a large proportion of all dry cargo and tanker fixtures as well as the sale and purchase of merchant vessels. The company was founded in the mid-19th century, with leading founding shareholders being Stephen Ralli and Michael Rodocanachi, whose families were from the Chian Diaspora . The first use of the name was at the _Virginia and Baltick Coffee House_ in Threadneedle Street in 1744, and was registered as a private limited company with shares in 1900. Today the _exchange_ is owned by its member companies and is not publicly traded on a stock exchange . It is governed by a member-elected board of directors
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Provisional Irish Republican Army
Irish republicanism Socialism
Socialism
LEADERS IRA Army Council SIZE 30,000 during the troubles in addition to an unknown number of 'auxiliary' or 'second-line' members ORIGINATED AS Irish Republican Army (IRA) OPPONENTS * British Army
British Army
* Royal Ulster Constabulary
Royal Ulster Constabulary
* Ulster
Ulster
loyalist paramilitaries The PROVISIONAL IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY (PROVISIONAL IRA) was an Irish republican paramilitary organization that sought to remove Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and to bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland
Ireland
. It was the biggest and most active republican paramilitary group during the Troubles . It saw itself as the successor to the original IRA and called itself simply the IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY (IRA), or Óglaigh na hÉireann in Irish , and was widely referred to as such by others. The Provisional IRA emerged in December 1969, following a split in the republican movement
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Millennium Tower (London)
LONDON MILLENNIUM TOWER was one of several ideas for the site of the former Baltic Exchange at 30 St Mary Axe, City of London that had been destroyed beyond repair by a Provisional IRA bomb blast . Designed by Foster & Partners , for then owner Trafalgar House , the plan was for the building to be the tallest in Europe and the sixth tallest in the world at that time, behind the twin Petronas Towers in Malaysia, the Sears Tower (now called the Willis Tower ) in Chicago, and the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York. Its height was planned at 386 metres (1,265 ft), with 92 floors, which means it would have been 21st in the world today , and would be overtaken in Europe by the Federation Tower . A public viewing platform was planned for 1000 ft above ground level. The scheme featured a highly unorthodox floor layout, essentially two asymmetrical ellipses joined at one end. When the plans were first unveiled in 1996, the Guardian newspaper coined the term "erotic gherkin", a name that was quickly taken up by other media and which stuck even after the plan was superseded, eventually becoming The Gherkin , the popular name for the different design of building that stands on the site today
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