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2nd Millennium
The second millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001 of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and ended on December 31, 2000 of the Gregorian calendar.[1] It was the second period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini
Anno Domini
or Common Era. It is distinct from the millennium known as the 1000s which began on January 1, 1000 and ended on December 31, 1999. It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire, the Renaissance, the Baroque era, the early Modern Age, the age of Enlightenment, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 19th and 20th century
20th century
with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations
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New World
The New World
World
is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas
Americas
(including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda). The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas
Americas
in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa, Europe, and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a
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Common Era
Common Era or Current Era (CE)[1] is a name for a calendar era widely used around the world today. The era preceding CE is known as before the Common or Current Era (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era
Dionysian era
system, which distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, "[the] year of [the] Lord")[2] and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2018 CE" corresponds to "AD 2018" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC".[2][3][4][a] Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(and its predecessor, the Julian calendar)
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Millennia
A millennium (plural millennia or millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years,[1] also called kiloyears. It derives from the Latin
Latin
mille, thousand, and annus, year. It is often, but not always, related to a particular dating system. Sometimes, it is used specifically for periods of a thousand years that begin at the starting point (initial reference point) of the calendar in consideration (typically the year "1"), or in later years that are whole number multiples of a thousand years after it
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American Revolution
The American Revolution
Revolution
was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States
United States
of America. They defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with France and others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. They rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body
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Centuries
A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.[1]) is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages. A centenary is a hundredth anniversary, or a celebration of this, typically the remembrance of an event which took place a hundred years earlier.Contents1 Start and end in the Gregorian calendar1.1 Viewpoint 1: Strict usage 1.2 Viewpoint 2: General usage2 1st century BC and AD 3 Dating units in other calendar systems 4 Centuries in astronomical year numbering 5 Alternative naming systems 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyStart and end in the Gregorian calendar[edit] Although a century can mean any arbitrary period of 100 years, there are two viewpoints on the nature of standard centuries. One is based on strict construction while the other appeals to popular culture. According to the strict construction of the Gregorian calendar, the 1st century AD began with the year 1 and ended with the year 100
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Julian Calendar
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.[1] It took effect on 1 January
January
45 BC (AUC 709), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
gains against the mean tropical year at the rate of one day in 128 years. For the Gregorian calendar, the figure is one day in 3,030 years.[2] The difference in the average length of the year between Julian (365.25 days) and Gregorian (365.2425 days) is 0.002%. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months, as listed in the table below. A leap day is added to February every four years
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Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][Note 1] It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October
October
1582. It was a refinement to the Julian calendar[3] involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe
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Millennium
A millennium (plural millennia or millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years,[1] also called kiloyears. It derives from the Latin
Latin
mille, thousand, and annus, year. It is often, but not always, related to a particular dating system. Sometimes, it is used specifically for periods of a thousand years that begin at the starting point (initial reference point) of the calendar in consideration (typically the year "1"), or in later years that are whole number multiples of a thousand years after it
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Anno Domini
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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High Middle Ages
Central Europe Guelf, Hohenstaufen, and Ascanian
Ascanian
domains in Germany about 1176         Duchy of Saxony          Margravate of Brandenburg          Duchy of Franconia         Duchy of Swabia          Duchy of BavariaThe High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or High Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from AD 1000 to 1250
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Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
(March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)[4] was a Scottish-born[N 2] scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone[7] and founding the American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph
Telegraph
Company (AT&T) in 1885.[8][9] Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[10] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S
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Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or Late Medieval
Medieval
Period was the period of European history
European history
lasting from 1250-1500 AD. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
and preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance).[1] Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe
Europe
came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine
Famine
of 1315–1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities.[2] Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare
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Mongol Empire
The Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
(Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren  listen (help·info); Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; [mɔŋɡ(ɔ)ɮˈiːŋ ɛt͡sˈɛnt ˈɡurəŋ]; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguo
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Baroque Era
The Baroque
Baroque
(US: /bəˈroʊk/ or UK: /bəˈrɒk/) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century. It followed the Renaissance style
Renaissance style
and preceded the Neoclassical style. It was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant
Protestant
architecture, art and music. The baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began in the first third of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany
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