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22.2 Surround Sound
22.2 or Hamasaki 22.2 (named after Kimio Hamasaki, a senior research engineer at NHK
NHK
Science & Technology Research Laboratories in Japan) is the surround sound component of Super Hi-Vision (a new television standard with 16 times the pixel resolution of HDTV). It has been developed by NHK
NHK
Science & Technical Research Laboratories
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NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories
NHK
NHK
Science & Technical Research Laboratories (STRL, Japanese: NHK放送技術研究所, NHK
NHK
Hōsō Gijutsu Kenkyūjo), headquartered in Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan, is responsible for technical research at NHK, Japan's public broadcaster. Work done by the STRL inc
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Multichannel Television Sound
Multichannel television sound, better known as MTS (often still as BTSC, for the Broadcast Television
Television
Systems Committee that created it), is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an analog NTSC-format audio carrier.Contents1 History 2 Adopted in 3 How MTS works 4 MTS real world performance 5 MTS licensing 6 How MTS audio channels are used 7 MTS and the DTV transition in the United States 8 See also 9 ReferencesHistory[edit] Multichannel Television
Television
Sound
Sound
was adopted by the Federal Communications Commission as the U.S. standard for stereo television transmission in 1984. Initial work on design and testing of a stereophonic audio system began in 1975 when Telesonics approached Chicago
Chicago
public television station WTTW
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PAL-M
PAL-M
PAL-M
is the analog TV system used in Brazil
Brazil
since February 19, 1972. At that time, Brazil
Brazil
was the first South American country to broadcast in colour. Colour TV broadcast began on February 19, 1972, when the TV networks Globo and Bandeirantes transmitted the Caxias do Sul
Caxias do Sul
Grape Festival. Transition from black and white to colour was not complete until 1978
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PAL
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC
NTSC
and SECAM. All the countries using PAL
PAL
are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB, ISDB
ISDB
or DTMB. This page primarily discusses the PAL
PAL
colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation.Contents1 History 2 Colour encoding2.1 PAL
PAL
vs. NTSC 2.2 PAL
PAL
vs
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CCIR System B
CCIR System B was the 625-line
625-line
analog broadcast television system which at its peak was the system used in most countries
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CCIR System G
CCIR System G is an analog broadcast television system used in many countries. There are several systems in use and letter G is assigned for the European UHF
UHF
system which is also used in the majority of Asian and African countries. (However some countries in Europe use different systems.)Contents1 Specifications 2 System H 3 See also 4 Notes and references 5 External linksSpecifications[edit] Some of the important specs are listed below.[1]System G specificationsFrame rate Interlace Field rate Line/frame Line rate Visual b/w Vision mod. Preemphasis Sound mod. Sound offset Channel b/w25 2/1 50[2] 625 15625[3] 5 MHz. AC3 neg. 50 μs F3 5.5 MHz. 8 MHz.Channel spacing for CCIR television System G ( UHF
UHF
Bands) The separation between the audio and video carriers is 5.5 MHz.A frame is the total picture. The frame rate is the number of pictures displayed in one second
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CCIR System H
CCIR System H is an analog broadcast television system primarily used in Belgium, the Balkans and Malta on the UHF bands.Contents1 Specifications 2 System G 3 See also 4 Notes and references 5 External linksSpecifications[edit] Some of the important specs are listed below.[1]System G specificationsFrame rate Interlace Field rate Line/frame Line rate Visual b/w Vision mod. Preemphasis Sound mod. Sound offset Channel b/w25 2/1 50[2] 625 15625[3] 5 MHz. AC3 neg. 50 μs F3 5.5 MHz. 8 MHz.Channel spacing for CCIR television System H (UHF Bands) The separation between the audio and video carriers is 5.5 MHz.A frame is the total picture. The frame rate is the number of pictures displayed in one second. But each frame is actually scanned twice interleaving odd and even lines. Each scan is known as a field (odd and even fields.) So field rate is twice the frame rate
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CCIR System I
CCIR System I is an analog broadcast television system. It was first used in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
starting in 1962 as the 625-line broadcasting standard to be used on VHF
VHF
Band I and Band III, sharing Band III with 405-line
405-line
System A signals radiated in the north of the country. The UK started its own 625-line
625-line
television service in 1964 also using System I, but on UHF
UHF
only - the UK has never used VHF
VHF
for 625-line
625-line
television. Since then, System I has been adopted for use by Hong Kong, Macau, the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
and South Africa
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PAL-N
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC
NTSC
and SECAM. All the countries using PAL
PAL
are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB, ISDB
ISDB
or DTMB. This page primarily discusses the PAL
PAL
colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation.Contents1 History 2 Colour encoding2.1 PAL
PAL
vs. NTSC 2.2 PAL
PAL
vs
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PALplus
PALplus (or PAL+) is an analogue television broadcasting system aimed to improve and enhance the PAL
PAL
format while remaining compatible with existing television receivers. It followed experiences with the HD-MAC and D2-MAC, hybrid analogue-digital formats that were incompatible with PAL
PAL
receivers
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SECAM
SECAM, also written SÉCAM (French pronunciation: ​[sekam], Séquentiel couleur à mémoire,[1] French for "Sequential colour with memory"), is an analogue color television system first used in France. It was one of three major colour television standards, the others being the European PAL
PAL
and North American NTSC. Development of SECAM
SECAM
began in 1956 by a team led by Henri de France working at Compagnie Française de Télévision (later bought by Thomson, now Technicolor). The first SECAM
SECAM
broadcast was made in France
France
in 1967, making it the first such standard to go live in Europe. The system was also selected as the standard for colour in the Soviet Union, who began broadcasts shortly after the French. The standard spread from these two countries to many client states and former colonies. SECAM
SECAM
remained a major standard into the 2000s
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Audio Signal
An audio signal is a representation of sound, typically as an electrical voltage for analog signals and a binary number for digital signals. Audio signals have frequencies in the audio frequency range of roughly 20 to 20,000 Hz (the limits of human hearing). Audio signals may be synthesized directly, or may originate at a transducer such as a microphone, musical instrument pickup, phonograph cartridge, or tape head
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EIAJ MTS
Founded in 1948, the Electronic Industries Association of Japan (EIAJ) was one of two Japanese electronics trade organizations that were merged into the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA). Prior to the merger, EIAJ created a number of electronics industry standards that have had some use outside Japan, including:The EIAJ connectors used for DC power (EIAJ RC-5320A, EIAJ RC-5321, and EIAJ RC-5322 The D-Terminal
D-Terminal
connector (RC-5237), used instead of three RCA plugs for component video connections. The TOSLINK
TOSLINK
(EIAJ Optical, RC-5720C) optical S/PDIF audio connector. The EIAJ-1
EIAJ-1
videotape format, the first standardized format for industrial/non-broadcast video tape recording, released in 1969.Another standard is the multi-channel TV sound system used with the NTSC-J analog TV system
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NTSC
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,[1] is the analog television system that is used in North America, and until digital conversion was used in most of the Americas
Americas
(except Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and French Guiana); Myanmar; South Korea; Taiwan; Philippines, Japan;[2] and some Pacific island nations and territories (see map). The first NTSC
NTSC
standard was developed in 1941 and had no provision for color. In 1953 a second NTSC
NTSC
standard was adopted, which allowed for color television broadcasting which was compatible with the existing stock of black-and-white receivers
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NICAM
Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex (NICAM) is an early form of lossy compression for digital audio
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