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2014 AA
2014 AA
2014 AA
was a small Apollo near-Earth asteroid roughly 2–4 meters in diameter that struck Earth on 2 January 2014.[2] It was discovered on 1 January 2014 by Richard Kowalski at the Mount Lemmon Survey at an apparent magnitude of 19 usi
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Sky & Telescope
Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following:current events in astronomy and space exploration; events in the amateur astronomy community; reviews of astronomical equipment, books, and computer software; amateur telescope making; and astrophotography.The articles are intended for the informed lay reader and include detailed discussions of current discoveries, frequently by participating scientists
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Universal Time
Universal Time
Time
(UT) is a time standard based on Earth's rotation. It is a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT), i.e., the mean solar time on the Prime Meridian at Greenwich, London, UK. In fact, the expression "Universal Time" is ambiguous (when accuracy of better than a few seconds is required), as there are several versions of it, the most commonly used being Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) and UT1 (see below).[1] All of these versions of UT, except for UTC, are based on Earth's rotation relative to distant celestial objects (stars and quasars), but with a scaling factor and other adjustments to make them closer to solar time
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Argument Of Periapsis
The argument of periapsis (also called argument of perifocus or argument of pericenter), symbolized as ω, is one of the orbital elements of an orbiting body. Parametrically, ω is the angle from the body's ascending node to its periapsis, measured in the direction of motion. For specific types of orbits, words such as perihelion (for heliocentric orbits), perigee (for geocentric orbits), periastron (for orbits around stars), and so on may replace the word periapsis. (See apsis for more information.) An argument of periapsis of 0° means that the orbiting body will be at its closest approach to the central body at the same moment that it crosses the plane of reference from South to North. An argument of periapsis of 90° means that the orbiting body will reach periapsis at its northmost distance from the plane of reference. Adding the argument of periapsis to the longitude of the ascending node gives the longitude of the periapsis
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Standard Asteroid Physical Characteristics
For the majority of numbered asteroids, almost nothing is known apart from a few physical parameters and orbital elements and some physical characteristics are often only estimated
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Mass
Mass
Mass
is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.[1] It also determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit
SI unit
of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics, mass is not the same as weight, even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale, rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon
Moon
would weigh less than it does on Earth
Earth
because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object
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Apparent Magnitude
The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value (i.e. inverse relation). The Sun, at apparent magnitude of −27, is the brightest object in the sky. It is adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere. Furthermore, the magnitude scale is logarithmic. A difference of 1 in magnitude corresponds to a change in brightness by a factor of 5√100, or about 2.512. The measurement of apparent magnitudes or brightnesses of celestial objects is known as photometry. Apparent magnitudes are used to quantify the brightness of sources at ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths. An apparent magnitude is usually measured in a specific passband corresponding to some photometric system such as the UBV system
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Reflecting Telescope
A reflecting telescope (also called a reflector) is a telescope that uses a single or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image. The reflecting telescope was invented in the 17th century, by Isaac Newton, as an alternative to the refracting telescope which, at that time, was a design that suffered from severe chromatic aberration. Although reflecting telescopes produce other types of optical aberrations, it is a design that allows for very large diameter objectives. Almost all of the major telescopes used in astronomy research are reflectors. Reflecting telescopes come in many design variations and may employ extra optical elements to improve image quality or place the image in a mechanically advantageous position
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Mount Lemmon Observatory
Mount Lemmon
Mount Lemmon
Observatory
Observatory
(MLO), also known as the Mount Lemmon Infrared
Infrared
Observatory, is an astronomical observatory located on Mount Lemmon in the Santa Catalina Mountains
Santa Catalina Mountains
approximately 28 kilometers (17 mi) northeast of Tucson, Arizona
Arizona
(US)
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Uncertainty Parameter U
The uncertainty parameter U is a parameter introduced by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) to quantify concisely the uncertainty of a perturbed orbital solution for a minor planet.[1][2] The parameter is a logarithmic scale from 0 to 9 that measures the anticipated longitudinal uncertainty[3] in the minor planet's mean anomaly after 10 years.[1][2][4] The uncertainty parameter is also known as condition code in JPL's Small-Body Database Browser.[2][4][5] The U value should not be used as a predictor for the uncertainty in the future motion of near-Earth objects.[1] Orbital uncertainty[edit]Classical Kuiper belt objects 40–50 AU from the SunObject JPL SBDB Uncertainty parameter Horizons January 2018 Uncertainty in distance from the Sun20000 Varuna 2 ±140 thousand km19521 Chaos 3 ±840 thousand km(15807) 1994 GV9 4 ±1.4 million km(160256) 2002 PD149 5 ±8.2 million km1999 DH8 6 ±70 million km1999 CQ153 7 ±190 million km1995
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JPL Small-Body Database
The JPL Small-Body Database
Database
(SBDB) is an astronomy database about small Solar System bodies. It is maintained by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and NASA
NASA
and provides data for all known asteroids and several comets, including orbital parameters and diagrams, physical diagrams, and lists of publications related to the small body. The database is updated on a daily basis.[1]Contents1 Close-approach data 2 Orbit
Orbit
diagram 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksClose-approach data[edit] As of August 2013 (planetary ephemeris DE431) close-approach data is available for the major planets and the 16 most massive asteroids. Close approach data is available by adding ";cad=1" to the end of the URL.[citation needed] Orbit
Orbit
diagram[edit] A Java applet is available and provided as a 3D orbit visualization tool
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3-sigma
In statistics, the 68–95–99.7 rule is a shorthand used to remember the percentage of values that lie within a band around the mean in a normal distribution with a width of two, four and six standard deviations, respectively; more accurately, 68.27%, 95.45% and 99.73% of the values lie within one, two and three standard deviations of the mean, respectively
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Minor Planet Center
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars. Under the auspices of the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU), it operates at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, which is part of the Center for Astrophysics along with the Harvard College Observatory.[1] The MPC runs a number of free online services for observers to assist them in observing minor planets and comets. The complete catalogue of minor planet orbits (sometimes referred to as the "Minor Planet Catalogue") may also be freely downloaded. In addition to astrometric data, the MPC collects light curve photometry of minor planets
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Mean Motion
In orbital mechanics, mean motion (represented by n) is the angular speed required for a body to complete one orbit, assuming constant speed in a circular orbit which completes in the same time as the variable speed, elliptical orbit of the actual body.[1] The concept applies equally well to a small body revolving about a large, massive primary body or to two relatively same-sized bodies revolving about a common center of mass. While nominally a mean, and theoretically so in the case of two-body motion, in practice the mean motion is not typically an average over time for the orbits of real bodies, which only approximate the two-body assumption
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Jet Propulsion Laboratory
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA
NASA
field center in Pasadena, California,[1] United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California. The JPL is owned by NASA
NASA
and managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology (Caltech) for NASA. The laboratory's primary function is the construction and operation of planetary robotic spacecraft, though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions
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Nubian Desert
Coordinates: 20°30′N 33°00′E / 20.5°N 33°E / 20.5; 33Fragment of Nubian Desert
Desert
seen from spaceThe Nubian Desert
Desert
(Arabic: صحراء النوبة‎, Şaḩrā’ an Nūbyah) is in the eastern region of the Sahara
Sahara
Desert, spanning approximately 400,000 km² of northeastern Sudan
Sudan
between the Nile and the Red Sea. The arid region is rugged and rocky and contains some dunes, it also contains many wadis that die out before reaching the Nile. The average annual rainfall in the Nubian Desert
Desert
is less than 5 inches (125mm).[1] The native inhabitants of the area are the Nubians. The River Nile
Nile
goes through most of its cataracts while traveling through the Nubian Desert. This is right before the Great Bend of the Nile
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