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20 Fenchurch Street
20 FENCHURCH STREET is a commercial skyscraper in London that takes its name from its address on Fenchurch Street , in the historic City of London financial district. It has been nicknamed 'The Walkie-Talkie ' because of its distinctive shape. Construction was completed in spring 2014, and the top-floor 'sky garden' was opened in January 2015. The 34-storey building is 160 m (525 ft) tall, making it the sixth-tallest building in the City of London and the 12th tallest in London. Designed by architect Rafael Viñoly and costing over £200 million, 20 Fenchurch Street features a highly distinctive top-heavy form which appears to burst upward and outward. A large viewing deck, bar and restaurants are included on the top three floors; these are, with restrictions, open to the public. The tower was originally proposed at nearly 200 m (656 ft) tall but its design was scaled down after concerns about its visual impact on the nearby St Paul\'s Cathedral and Tower of London . It was subsequently approved in 2006 with the revised height. Even after the height reduction there were continued concerns from heritage groups about its impact on the surrounding area. The project was consequently the subject of a public inquiry ; in 2007 this ruled in the developers' favour and the building was granted full planning permission
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City Hall, London
CITY HALL is the headquarters of the Greater London
London
Authority (GLA), which comprises the Mayor of London
London
and the London
London
Assembly . It is located in Southwark
Southwark
, on the south bank of the River Thames
River Thames
near Tower Bridge . It was designed by Norman Foster and opened in July 2002, two years after the Greater London
London
Authority was created. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Design * 3 Location * 4 References * 5 External links BACKGROUNDFor the first two years of its existence, the Greater London Authority was based at Romney House, Marsham Street in Westminster
Westminster
. Meetings of the London
London
Assembly took place at Emmanuel Centre, also on Marsham Street. City Hall was constructed at a cost of £43 million on a site formerly occupied by wharves serving the Pool of London
London
. The building does not belong to the GLA but is leased under a 25-year rent. Despite its name, City Hall is not in and does not serve a city (according to UK law ), which often adds to the confusion of Greater London
London
with the City of London
London
, which has its headquarters at Guildhall
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Modern Architecture
MODERN ARCHITECTURE or MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II . It was based upon new technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass , steel and reinforced concrete ; and upon a rejection of the traditional neoclassical architecture and Beaux-Arts styles that were popular in the 19th century. Modern architecture continued to be the dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings into 1980s, when it was challenged by postmodernism , and then by "neo-modernism" and other schools which gradually supplanted it. Notable architects important to the history and development of the modernist movement include Frank Lloyd Wright , Ludwig Mies van der Rohe , Le Corbusier , Walter Gropius , Konstantin Melnikov , Erich Mendelsohn , Richard Neutra , Louis Sullivan , Gerrit Rietveld , Bruno Taut , Gunnar Asplund , Arne Jacobsen , Oscar Niemeyer and Alvar Aalto
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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EC Postcode Area
A POSTAL CODE (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a POSTCODE, POST CODE, EIRCODE, PIN CODE or ZIP CODE) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail . In February 2005, 117 of the 190 member countries of the Universal Postal Union had postal code systems. Although postal codes are usually assigned to geographical areas, special codes are sometimes assigned to individual addresses or to institutions that receive large volumes of mail, such as government agencies and large commercial companies. One example is the French CEDEX system
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Rafael Viñoly
RAFAEL VIñOLY BECEIRO (born 1944) is an Uruguayan architect . He is the principal of Rafael Viñoly
Rafael Viñoly
Architects, which he founded in 1983 and has offices in New York City
New York City
, Palo Alto
Palo Alto
, London
London
, Manchester
Manchester
, Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
and Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
. CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Honors and awards * 3 Buildings * 4 Criticism * 4.1 Carbuncle Cup * 4.2 Sun Glare * 5 References * 6 External links LIFE AND CAREERViñoly was born in Montevideo
Montevideo
, Uruguay
Uruguay
to Román Viñoly Barreto
Román Viñoly Barreto
(a film and theater director) and Maria Beceiro (a mathematics teacher). He attended the University of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, receiving a Diploma
Diploma
in Architecture in 1968 and a Master of Architecture from the School of Architecture and Urbanism in 1969. In 1964, he formed the "Estudio de Arquitectura Manteola-Petchersky-Sánchez Gómez-Santos-Solsona-Viñoly" architectural firm with six associates. This practice would eventually become one of the largest architectural practices in South America, completing many significant commissions in a very short time
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Land Securities
LAND SECURITIES GROUP PLC is the largest commercial property development and investment company in the UK. The firm switched to Real Estate Investment
Investment
Trust status when REITs were introduced in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in January 2007. It is headquartered in London
London
and traded on the London Stock Exchange , and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Operations * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe Group traces its origins to 1944, when its founder Harold Samuel purchased Land Securities
Land Securities
Investment
Investment
Trust Limited, which owned three houses in Kensington
Kensington
and some government stock. Further acquisitions followed shortly afterwards and from 1947 the company concentrated on commercial property. In the early days some non-UK investments were acquired, but in 1971 these were sold off and the company has concentrated solely on the UK market since then. The company name was changed to Land Securities
Land Securities
plc in 1982. After buying Trillium in 2000, it formed a 50/50 JV company Telereal in 2002 with William Pears Group (WPG) to buy the property portfolio of British Telecom : after selling its shares in Telereal to WPG in 2007, Land Securities sold Trillium to WPG in 2009
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Canary Wharf Group
CANARY WHARF GROUP PLC is a British property company headquartered in London
London
, England
England
. It is the owner and developer of nearly 100 acres (0.40 km2) of property at Canary Wharf and elsewhere in London. Over the last 10 years it has constructed more office space in London
London
than any other developer. The group owns 7,900,000 square feet (730,000 m2) of property which is worth £4.9 billion, of which 95.6% was let as of 30 June 2012. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Structure * 3 Relationship with TfL * 4 Property portfolio * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe company was formed in 1993 as Canary Wharf Limited to acquire the former assets of Olympia and York from its Administrator. In December 1995, the company was acquired by an international consortium, including Olympia and York founder Paul Reichmann . In April 1999, the company floated on the London
London
Stock Exchange . In 2004, a majority of the company was acquired by Glick Family Investments and Morgan Stanley using an investment vehicle company called Songbird Acquisitions, which was later taken over by China Investment Corporation . STRUCTUREThe group owns Canary Wharf Contractors, a business which has built most of the buildings at Canary Wharf
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Halcrow Group
HALCROW GROUP LIMITED was a multinational engineering consultancy company , based in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Halcrow was one of the UK's largest consultancies, with origins stretching back to 1868. The UK-based consultancy specialised in the provision of planning, design and management services for infrastructure development worldwide. With interests in transportation, water, maritime and property, the company undertook commissions in over 70 countries from a network of more than 90 offices. In 2011, the company was acquired by US firm CH2M Hill
CH2M Hill
, and in 2013 it was announced that the Halcrow brand would eventually be discontinued. The parent subsequently (2015) rebranded the whole group to CH2M. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Modern company * 2.1 Notable modern projects * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe company was founded in 1868 by civil engineer Thomas Meik
Thomas Meik
, and originally bore his name, and later those of his sons, Patrick and Charles . It worked extensively on port , maritime and railway projects in the North of England
North of England
, in Wales
Wales
and in Scotland
Scotland
, before undertaking its first commissions outside the UK in the 1890s
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Carbuncle Cup
The CARBUNCLE CUP is an architecture prize, given annually by the magazine Building Design
Building Design
to "the ugliest building in the United Kingdom completed in the last 12 months". It is intended to be a humorous response to the prestigious Stirling Prize
Stirling Prize
, given by the Royal Institute of British Architects
Royal Institute of British Architects
. The Carbuncle
Carbuncle
Cup award was launched in 2006, with the first winner being Drake Circus Shopping Centre
Drake Circus Shopping Centre
in Plymouth
Plymouth
by Chapman Taylor
Chapman Taylor
. A shortlist is announced by Building Design
Building Design
each year, based on nominations from the public, and usually timed to coincide with the Stirling Prize
Stirling Prize
shortlist. Public voting via the magazine's website was used to select past winners, giving the award a sense of democratic involvement. Since 2009 a small group of critics has selected the final winners. The award was inspired by the Carbuncle Awards , which the Scottish architecture magazine Urban Realm , formerly Prospect, had been presenting to buildings and areas in Scotland since 2000
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Skyscraper
A SKYSCRAPER is a tall, continuously habitable building having multiple floors . When the term was originally used in the 1880s it described a building of 10 to 20 floors but now describes one of at least 40–50 floors. Mostly designed for office, commercial and residential uses, a skyscraper can also be called a high-rise , but the term "skyscraper" is often used for buildings higher than 100 m (328 ft). For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term "supertall" can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as "megatall". One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls . These curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete . Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a small surface area of windows. Modern skyscrapers often have a tubular structure , and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic, and other lateral loads
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Fenchurch Street
FENCHURCH STREET is a street in London linking Aldgate
Aldgate
at its eastern end with Lombard Street and Gracechurch Street in the west. It is a well-known thoroughfare in the City of London
City of London
financial district and is the site of a large number of corporate offices and headquarters To the south of Fenchurch Street
Fenchurch Street
and towards its eastern end is Fenchurch Street railway station
Fenchurch Street railway station
, a mainline terminus with services towards east London and Essex. Other notable sites include the commercial buildings at 20 Fenchurch Street
20 Fenchurch Street
and Plantation Place . STREETSCAPE Fenchurch Street
Fenchurch Street
is home to a large number of shops, pubs and offices, including 20 Fenchurch Street
20 Fenchurch Street
, a 525 ft tall skyscraper completed in 2014. Fenchurch Street
Fenchurch Street
(western end) Located at No. 71 is Lloyd\'s Register , where the annual journal Lloyd's Registry was previously published. The frontage on Fenchurch Street was built in 1901 by Thomas Edward Collcutt
Thomas Edward Collcutt
and is a Grade II* listed building . The more modern building behind was designed by Richard Rogers
Richard Rogers
and towers above it
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City Of London
The CITY OF LONDON is a city and county that contains the historic centre and central business district of London
London
. It constituted most of London
London
from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages , but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London
London
, though it remains a notable part of central London
London
. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London
London
; however, the City of London
London
is not a London
London
borough , a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster ). The City of London
London
is widely referred to simply as THE CITY (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising _City_) and is also colloquially known as the SQUARE MILE, as it is 1.12 sq mi (2.90 km2) in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City. The name _London_ is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City
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Walkie-talkie
A WALKIE-TALKIE (more formally known as a HANDHELD TRANSCEIVER, or HT) is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver . Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald L. Hings , radio engineer Alfred J. Gross , and engineering teams at Motorola
Motorola
. First used for infantry, similar designs were created for field artillery and tank units, and after the war, walkie-talkies spread to public safety and eventually commercial and jobsite work. Typical walkie-talkies resemble a telephone handset , with a speaker built into one end and a microphone in the other (in some devices the speaker also is used as the microphone) and an antenna mounted on the top of the unit. They are held up to the face to talk. A walkie-talkie is a half-duplex communication device; multiple walkie-talkies use a single radio channel, and only one radio on the channel can transmit at a time, although any number can listen. The transceiver is normally in receive mode; when the user wants to talk he presses a "push-to-talk " (PTT) button that turns off the receiver and turns on the transmitter
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List Of Tallest Buildings And Structures In London
This LIST OF THE TALLEST BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES IN LONDON ranks skyscrapers and towers in London
London
by their height. Since 2010, the tallest structure in London
London
has been The Shard , which was topped out at 310 metres (1,017 ft), making it the tallest habitable building in Europe at the time. The second tallest is One Canada Square in Canary Wharf , which rises 235 metres (771 ft) and was completed in 1991. The third tallest is the Heron Tower in the City of London financial district, which was topped out in 2010 and stands at a height of 230 metres (755 ft), including its spire. The Greater London area is currently about level with the Paris Metropolitan Area as the metropolitan area in the European Union with the most skyscrapers. As of 2017, there are 17 skyscrapers in London that reach a roof height of at least 150 metres (492 ft), with 19 in Paris (compared to 15 in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, eleven in Warsaw
Warsaw
and five each in Madrid
Madrid
and Milan
Milan
). The history of tall structures in London
London
began with the completion of the 27-metre (89 ft) White Tower , a part of the Tower of London
Tower of London
, in 1098. The first structure to surpass a height of 100 metres (328 ft) was the Old St Paul\'s Cathedral
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St Paul's Cathedral
ST PAUL\'S CATHEDRAL, London, is an Anglican cathedral , the seat of the Bishop
Bishop
of London
London
and the mother church of the Diocese of London
London
. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London
London
and is a Grade 1 listed building . Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604. The present cathedral, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque
English Baroque
style by Sir Christopher Wren . Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London
London
. The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, has dominated the skyline for over 300 years. At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London
London
from 1710 to 1967. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second-largest church building in area in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
after Liverpool Cathedral
Cathedral
. St Paul's Cathedral
Cathedral
occupies a significant place in the national identity
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