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19th-century Philosophy
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers. In the late 18th century a movement known as Romanticism began; it validated strong emotion as an authentic not of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror and terror and awe. Key ideas that sparked changes in philosophy were the fast progress of science; evolution , as postulated by Vanini , Diderot , Lord Monboddo , Erasmus Darwin , Lamarck , Goethe , and Charles Darwin ; and what might now be called emergent order, such as the free market of Adam Smith within nation states. Pressures for egalitarianism , and more rapid change culminated in a period of revolution and turbulence that would see philosophy change as well
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Iranian Philosophy
IRANIAN PHILOSOPHY (Persian :فلسفه ایرانی) or PERSIAN PHILOSOPHY can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustra 's teachings. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy , the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to 1500 BC
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Japanese Philosophy
JAPANESE PHILOSOPHY has historically been a fusion of both indigenous Shinto
Shinto
and continental religions, such as Buddhism
Buddhism
and Confucianism
Confucianism
. Formerly heavily influenced by both Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
and Indian philosophy , as with Mitogaku and Zen
Zen
, much modern Japanese philosophy is now also influenced by Western philosophy
Western philosophy

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Korean Philosophy
KOREAN PHILOSOPHY focused on a totality of world view . The emotional content of Richard Kang , and the unpredictable, and some aspects of Neo- Confucianism
Confucianism
were integrated into it. Traditional Korean thought has been influenced by a number of religious and philosophical thought-systems over the years. As the main influences on Richard in Korea
Korea
, often Korean Shamanism
Korean Shamanism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, and Confucianism
Confucianism
movements have shaped Korean life and thought
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Indian Philosophy
INDIAN PHILOSOPHY (Sanskrit : दर्शन or darśana) comprises the ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. The schools of Indian philosophical thought are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas
Vedas
are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman ; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas
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Chinese Philosophy
CHINESE PHILOSOPHY originates in the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
and Warring States period
Warring States period
, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought ", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments. Although much of Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
begins in the Warring States
Warring States
period, elements of Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
have existed for several thousand years; some can be found in the Yi Jing (the Book of Changes), an ancient compendium of divination , which dates back to at least 672 BCE
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Sikh Philosophy
The PHILOSOPHY OF SIKHISM is covered in great detail in the Guru Granth Sahib , the Sikh
Sikh
holy text. Detailed guidance is given to followers on how to conduct their lives so that peace and salvation can be obtained. The holy text outlines the positive actions that one must take to make progress in the evolution of the person. One must remember the Creator at all times – it reminds the follower that the "soul is, but a part of the whole that is God, who is ever merciful", and that the follower must dedicate their life to all good causes - to help make this life more worthwhile. The sections below give more details of the underlying message of this faith
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Eastern Philosophy
EASTERN PHILOSOPHY or ASIAN PHILOSOPHY includes the various philosophies of South and East Asia
East Asia
, including Chinese philosophy , Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
, Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
(dominant in Tibet
Tibet
, Bhutan
Bhutan
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
), Korean philosophy , and Japanese philosophy . According to Victoria S. Harrison, the category of "Eastern philosophy", and similarly "Asian philosophy" and "Oriental philosophy" is a product of 19th-century Western scholarship and did not exist in East Asia
East Asia
or India. This is because in Asia
Asia
there is no single unified philosophical tradition with a single root
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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
JEAN-BAPTISTE PIERRE ANTOINE DE MONET, CHEVALIER DE LAMARCK (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as LAMARCK (/ləˈmɑːrk/ ; French: ), was a French naturalist . He was a soldier , biologist , academic , and an early proponent of the idea that biological evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws . He gave the term "biology " a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry , meteorology , geology , and botany-zoology. Lamarck fought in the Pomeranian War (1757–62) against Prussia
Prussia
, and was awarded a commission for bravery on the battlefield. Posted to Monaco
Monaco
, Lamarck became interested in natural history and resolved to study medicine. He retired from the army after being injured in 1766, and returned to his medical studies
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Erasmus Darwin
ERASMUS DARWIN (12 December 1731 – 18 April 1802) was an English physician. One of the key thinkers of the Midlands Enlightenment , he was also a natural philosopher , physiologist , slave-trade abolitionist , inventor and poet. His poems included much natural history , including a statement of evolution and the relatedness of all forms of life. He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family , which includes his grandsons Charles Darwin and Francis Galton . Darwin was a founding member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham , a discussion group of pioneering industrialists and natural philosophers. He turned down an invitation of George III 's to become a physician to the King
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Lucilio Vanini
LUCILIO VANINI (1585 – 9 February 1619), who, in his works, styled himself GIULIO CESARE VANINI, was an Italian philosopher, physician and free-thinker , who was one of the first significant representatives of intellectual libertinism . He was among the first modern thinkers who viewed the universe as an entity governed by natural laws (nomological determinism ). He was also the first literate proponent of the thesis that humans evolved from apes
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Denis Diderot
DENIS DIDEROT (French: ; 5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic , and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie
Encyclopédie
along with Jean le Rond d\'Alembert . Diderot's literary reputation during his lifetime rested primarily on his plays and his contributions to the Encyclopédie; many of his most important works, including Jacques the Fatalist , Rameau\'s Nephew , Paradox of the Actor , and D\'Alembert\'s Dream , were published only after his death
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Evolution
EVOLUTION is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations . Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation , including the levels of species , individual organisms , and molecules . Repeated formation of new species (speciation ), change within species (anagenesis ), and loss of species (extinction ) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences . These shared traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor , and can be used to reconstruct a biological "tree of life " based on evolutionary relationships (phylogenetics ), using both existing species and fossils
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Romanticism
ROMANTICISM (also the ROMANTIC ERA or the ROMANTIC PERIOD) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism
Romanticism
was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution , the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment , and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity . It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, and the natural sciences
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Immanuel Kant
IMMANUEL KANT (/kænt/ ; German: ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy . Kant argued that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality , that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment , that space and time are forms of our sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of our concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution " in philosophy , akin to Copernicus
Copernicus
' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolved around the earth. His beliefs continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of metaphysics , epistemology , ethics , political theory , and aesthetics . Politically, Kant was one of the earliest exponents of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (/ruːˈsoʊ/ ; French: ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Francophone
Francophone
Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment in France
France
and across Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the overall development of modern political and educational thought. Rousseau's novel Emile, or On Education
Emile, or On Education
is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction
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