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1990s Post-Soviet Aliyah
The 1990s Post-Soviet aliyah
1990s Post-Soviet aliyah
began en masse in late 1980s when the government of Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
opened the borders of the USSR
USSR
and allowed Jews
Jews
to leave the country for Israel. Between 1989 and 2006, about 1.6 million Soviet Jews
Jews
and their non-Jewish relatives and spouses, as defined by the Law of Return, emigrated from the former Soviet Union.[1] About 979,000, or 61%, migrated to Israel
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Old Yishuv
The Old Yishuv
Yishuv
(Hebrew: היישוב הישן‎, ha- Yishuv
Yishuv
ha-Yashan) were the Jewish communities of the southern Syrian provinces in the Ottoman period,[1] up to the onset of Zionist aliyah and the consolidation of the New Yishuv
Yishuv
by the end of World War I
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Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
(Hebrew: מַעְבָּרוֹת‎) were refugee absorption camps in Israel
Israel
in the 1950s. The Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
were meant to provide accommodation for the large influx of Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
and new Jewish immigrants (olim) arriving to the newly independent State of Israel, replacing the less habitable immigrant camps or tent cities. The ma'abarot began to decline by mid-1950s and were largely transformed into Development Towns. The last Ma'abara was closed in 1963.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Media and popular culture 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit]Ma'abara in Beit LidThe Hebrew word Ma'abara (singular) derives from the word ma'avar (Hebrew: מעבר‎, transit). Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
(plural) were meant to be temporary communities for the new arrivals
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Austerity In Israel
From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel
Israel
was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity (Hebrew: צנע‬, Tzena'), during which rationing and similar measures were enforced. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
residents standing in line to buy food rations, 1954Contents1 Rationale 2 Life under austerity 3 End of austerity 4 Results 5 See also 6 ReferencesRationale[edit] Soon after establishment in 1948, the emerging state of Israel
Israel
found itself lacking in both food and foreign currency. In just three and a half years, the Jewish population of Israel
Israel
had doubled, increased by nearly 700,000 immigrants
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Perushim
The Perushim
Perushim
(Hebrew: פרושים‬) were disciples of the Vilna Gaon, Rabbi
Rabbi
Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, who left Lithuania
Lithuania
at the beginning of the 19th century to settle in the Land of Israel, which was then part of Ottoman Syria
Ottoman Syria
under Ottoman rule. They were from the section of the community known as mitnagdim (opponents of the Chassidic movement) in Lithuania. The name Perushim
Perushim
comes from the פרש‬ parash, meaning "to separate". The group sought to separate themselves from what they saw as the impurities of the society around them in Europe, and the name literally means 'separated (individuals)'. Coincidentally this was the same name by which the Pharisees
Pharisees
of antiquity were known
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Kibbutz
A kibbutz (Hebrew: קִבּוּץ‬ / קיבוץ‬, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim קִבּוּצִים‬ / קיבוצים‬) is a collective community in Israel
Israel
that was traditionally based on agriculture. The first kibbutz, established in 1909, was Degania.[1] Today, farming has been partly supplanted by other economic branches, including industrial plants and high-tech enterprises.[2] Kibbutzim began as utopian communities, a combination of socialism and Zionism.[3] In recent decades, some kibbutzim have been privatized and changes have been made in the communal lifestyle. A member of a kibbutz is called a kibbutznik (Hebrew: קִבּוּצְנִיק‬ / קיבוצניק‬; plural kibbutznikim or kibbutzniks). In 2010, there were 270 kibbutzim in Israel
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Jewish National Fund
The Jewish National Fund
Jewish National Fund
(Hebrew: קרן קיימת לישראל‎, Keren Kayemet LeYisrael previously הפונד הלאומי, Ha Fund HaLeumi) was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine (later the British Mandate for Palestine, and subsequently Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian territories) for Jewish settlement.[2] The JNF is a non-profit organization.[3][4] By 2007, it owned 13% of the total land in Israel.[5] Since its inception, the JNF says it has planted over 240 million trees in Israel
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Youth Aliyah
Youth Aliyah
Youth Aliyah
(Hebrew: עלית הנוער, Aliyat Hano'ar, German: Jugend-Alijah) is a Jewish organization that rescued thousands of Jewish children from the Nazis during the Third Reich. Youth Aliyah arranged for their resettlement in Palestine in kibbutzim and youth villages that became both home and school.Contents1 History 2 Today 3 Awards 4 Directors 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Recha Freier, a rabbi's wife, founded Youth Aliyah
Youth Aliyah
in Berlin on the same day that Adolf Hitler took power, Monday 30 January 1933. The organisation was founded to protect German Jewish youth by sending them to pioneer training programs in Palestine after completing elementary school. The idea was supported by the World Zionist Organization
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Jewish Question
The Jewish question
Jewish question
was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews
Jews
in society. The debate was similar to other so-called "national questions" and dealt with the civil, legal, national and political status of Jews
Jews
as a minority within society, particularly in Europe
Europe
in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The debate started within societies, politicians and writers in western and central Europe
Europe
influenced by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
and the ideals of the French Revolution. The issues included the legal and economic Jewish disabilities (e.g
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Ministry Of Immigrant Absorption
Ministry of Aliyah
Aliyah
and Integration (formerly Ministry of Immigration and Absorption) (Hebrew: משרד העלייה והקליטה‎, Misrad Ha Aliyah
Aliyah
VeHaKlita) is a ministry of the Israeli government. In 2017, the English name was changed in all publications.Contents1 History 2 List of ministers2.1 Deputy ministers3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The ministry was known until 1951 as the Ministry of Immigration (Hebrew: משרד העלייה‎, Misrad HaAliya) and later renamed HaMisrad LeKlitat Ha Aliyah
Aliyah
(Hebrew: המשרד לקליטת העלייה‎)
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Jews
Enlarged population (includes full or partial Jewish ancestry): 20.7 million[1] (2018, est.)Regions with significant populations Israel6,558,100–6,958,300[1] United States5,700,000–10,000,000[1] France453,000–600,000[1] Canada390,500–550,000[1] United Kingdom290,000–370,000[1] Argentina180,300–330,000[1] Russia172,000–440,000[1] Germany116,000–225,000[1] Australia113,400–140,000[1] Brazil93,200–150,000[1] South Africa69,000–80,000[1] Ukraine50,000–140,000[1] Hungary47,400–100,000[1] Mexico40,000–50,000[1] Netherlands29,800–52,000[1] Belgium29,200–40,000[1] Italy27,500–41,000[1]  Switzerland18,600–25,000[1] Chile18,300–26,000[1] Uruguay16,700–25,000[1] Turkey15,000–
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Am Yisrael Foundation
Am Yisrael Foundation
Am Yisrael Foundation
(Hebrew: קרן עם ישראל‎) is a Tel Aviv and New York-based foundation and umbrella nonprofit organization for a variety of initiatives that promote Zionist
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Promised Land
The Promised Land
Promised Land
(Hebrew: הארץ המובטחת‎, translit.: Ha'Aretz HaMuvtahat; Arabic: أرض الميعاد‎, translit.: Ard Al-Mi'ad; also known as "The Land of Milk and Honey") is the land which, according to the Tanakh
Tanakh
(the Hebrew Bible), was promised and subsequently given by God to Abraham
Abraham
and his descendants, and in modern contexts an image and idea related both to the restored Homeland for the Jewish people
Homeland for the Jewish people
and to salvation and liberation is more generally understood. The promise was first made to Abraham
Abraham
(Genesis 15:18-21), then confirmed to his son Isaac
Isaac
(Genesis 26:3), and then to Isaac's son Jacob
Jacob
(Genesis 28:13), Abraham's grandson
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Land Of Israel
The Land of Israel
Israel
(Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל‬, Modern Eretz Yisrael, Tiberian ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl) is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant. Related biblical, religious and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan, the Promised Land, the Holy Land, and Palestine (see also Israel
Israel
(other)). The definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible, with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel
Ezekiel
47
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Ulpan
An ulpan (Hebrew: אולפן‬) is an institute or school for the intensive study of Hebrew. Ulpan
Ulpan
(אולפן‬, plural ulpanim 'אולפנים‬) is a Hebrew word meaning "studio", "teaching", or "instruction". The ulpan is designed to teach adult immigrants to Israel
Israel
the basic language skills of conversation, writing and comprehension. Most ulpanim also provide instruction in the fundamentals of Israeli culture, history, and geography. The primary purpose of the ulpan is to help new citizens to be integrated as quickly and as easily as possible into the social, cultural and economic life of their new country.Contents1 History 2 Kibbutz
Kibbutz
ulpan 3 Criticism of ulpan method 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The concept of the ulpan was initiated soon after the creation of Israel
Israel
in 1948
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Revival Of The Hebrew Language
The revival of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
took place in Europe
Europe
and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel. The process began as Jews
Jews
started arriving in Palestine in the first half of the nineteenth century and used Hebrew
Hebrew
as a lingua franca.[1][2] However, a parallel development in Europe
Europe
changed Hebrew
Hebrew
from primarily a sacred liturgical language into a literary language[3] which played a key role in the development of nationalist educational programs.[4] Modern Hebrew, along with Modern Arabic, are official languages in Israel, even continuing after the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948
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