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1984 - 1985 Famine In Ethiopia
A widespread famine affected Ethiopia
Ethiopia
from 1983 to 1985.[1] The worst famine to hit the country in a century,[2] in northern Ethiopia
Ethiopia
it led to more than 400,000 deaths,[3] but, according to Human Rights Watch, more than half its mortality could be attributed to "human
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Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights
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International Community
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world. It does not refer literally to all nations or states in the world. The term is typically used to imply the existence of a common point of view towards such matters as specific issues of human rights
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Oromo Liberation Front
State allies Eritrea Somalia
Somalia
(until 1991)Non-state allies ONLF EPPF SLF The Red Odaa OrderOpponentsState opponents Ethiopian Empire
Ethiopian Empire
(1973–75) Derg
Derg
(1975–87) PDRE (1987–91)  Ethiopia  SomaliaNon-state opponents OPDO SPLA TPLFBattles and warsBattle of the Charchar Mountains Battle of Dembidollo Battle of Gelemso Battle of Hinde Battle of Horo Guduru Battle of Mendi Battle of TiroFlagThe Oromo Liberation Front
Oromo Liberation Front
(Oromo: Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo, abbreviated ABO; English abbreviation OLF) is an organisation established in 1973 by Oromo nationalists to promote self-determination for the Oromo people against "Abyssinian colonial rule"
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Gross National Product
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country. Unlike gross domestic product (GDP), which defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP indicates allocated production based on location of ownership
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Alex De Waal
Alexander William Lowndes "Alex" de Waal (born 22 February 1963), a British writer and researcher on African issues, is the executive director of the World Peace Foundation
World Peace Foundation
at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University.[1] Previously, he was a fellow of the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative at Harvard University, as well as program director at the
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Do They Know It's Christmas?
"Do They Know It's Christmas?" is a song written in 1984 by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure in reaction to television reports of the 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia. It was first recorded in a single day on 25 November 1984 by Band Aid, a supergroup put together by Geldof and Ure and consisting mainly of the biggest British and Irish musical acts at the time.[1] The single was released in the United Kingdom on 3 December 1984[2] and aided by considerable publicity it entered the UK Singles Chart at number one and stayed there for five weeks, becoming the Christmas number one of 1984
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Live Aid
Live Aid
Live Aid
was a dual-venue benefit concert held on 13 July 1985, and an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof
Bob Geldof
and Midge Ure
Midge Ure
to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London, England (attended by 72,000 people) and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
United States
(attended by about 100,000 people).[1] On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative happened in other countries, such as the Soviet Union, Canada, Japan, Yugoslavia, Austria, Australia
Australia
and West Germany
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Begemder
Begemder (Amharic: በጌምድር) (also Gondar or Gonder after its 20th century capital) was a province in the northwestern part of Ethiopia.Provinces of Ethiopia in 1960Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesEtymology[edit] There are several proposed etymologies for the name Begemder. One is that it came from Bega (Beja) plus meder (land) (meaning land of the Bega or Beja), as an inscription of Emperor Ezana of Aksum describes his movement of 4,400 conquered Beja to a not yet located province named Matlia.[1] A perhaps more plausible source for the name Bega is the self-name of the word Bega which means dry in the local language or another possible interpretation could be "sheep" where rearing of sheep which is beg in Amharic
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Shewa
Shewa (Ge'ez: ሸዋ, Šawā; Amharic: Šewā), formerly romanized as Shoa (Scioà in Italian[1]), is a historical region of Ethiopia, formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire. The modern Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is located at its center. The nucleus of Shewa is part of the mountainous plateau in what is currently the central area of Ethiopia, but prior to the Zemene Mesafint and after the loss of Bale with the invasion of Ahmed Al-Ghazi, Shewa was part of Ethiopia's southeasternmost frontier. Shewa was as defensible as any highland, and its government traced an administrative continuity with this earlier period despite the loss of neighboring lands to the Ethiopian Empire. At times, it was a haven; at other times, it was isolated from the rest of Ethiopia by hostile peoples. The towns of Debre Berhan, Antsokia, Ankober, Entoto and, after Shewa became a province of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa have all served as the capital of Shewa at various times
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Ethiopian Birr
The birr (Amharic: ብር) is the unit of currency in Ethiopia. Before 1976, dollar was the official English translation of birr. Today, it is officially birr in English as well. In 1931, the Emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I, formally requested that the international community use the name Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(as it had already been known internally for at least 1,600 years)[citation needed] instead of Abyssinia, and the issuing Bank of Abyssinia also became the Bank of Ethiopia
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Quintal
The quintal or centner is a historical unit of mass in many countries which is usually defined as 100 base units of either pounds or kilograms. It is commonly used for grain prices in wholesale markets in India, where 1 quintal = 100 kg.[1] In British English, it referred to the hundredweight; in American English, it formerly referred to an uncommon measure of 100 kilograms. Contents1 Name 2 Pound-based vs. kilogram-based 3 English use 4 See also 5 ReferencesName[edit] Both terms share their roots in the Classical Latin centenarius, meaning hundredlike, but the quintal has a convoluted etymology: It became Late Latin centenarium pondus, then in succession, Byzantine Greek κεντηνάριον (kentenarion) and Arabic qintar قنطار
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Desert Locust
The desert locust ( Schistocerca
Schistocerca
gregaria) is a species of locust. Plagues of desert locusts have threatened agricultural production in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia
Asia
for centuries. The livelihood of at least one-tenth of the world’s human population can be affected by this voracious insect. The desert locust is potentially the most dangerous of the locust pests because of the ability of swarms to fly rapidly across great distances. It has two to five generations per year
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RAF
The Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War
First World War
on 1 April 1918,[2] it is the oldest independent air force in the world.[3] Following victory over the Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world.[4] Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history
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Hararghe
Hararghe
Hararghe
(Amharic: ሐረርጌ; Harari: ሐረርጌይ, Oromo: Harargee, Somali: Xararge) was a province in the eastern part of Ethiopia, with its capital in Harar. Including Ethiopia's part of the Ogaden, Haraghe was bounded on the south by Sidamo, southwest by Arsi, west by Shewa, northwest by Wollo, northeast by French Somaliland, and on the east by Somalia
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C-130
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules
Lockheed C-130 Hercules
is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed (now Lockheed Martin). Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was originally designed as a troop, medevac, and cargo transport aircraft. The versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles, including as a gunship (AC-130), for airborne assault, search and rescue, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance, aerial refueling, maritime patrol, and aerial firefighting. It is now the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. More than 40 variants of the Hercules, including a civilian one marketed as the Lockheed L-100, operate in more than 60 nations. The C-130 entered service with the U.S. in the 1950s, followed by Australia
Australia
and many other nations
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