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1984 - 1985 Famine In Ethiopia
A widespread famine affected Ethiopia
Ethiopia
from 1983 to 1985. The worst famine to hit the country in a century, in northern Ethiopia
Ethiopia
it led to more than 400,000 deaths, but, according to Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
, more than half its mortality could be attributed to "human rights abuses causing the famine to come earlier, strike harder and extend further than would otherwise have been the case". Other areas of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
experienced famine for similar reasons, resulting in tens of thousands of additional deaths. The famine as a whole took place a decade into the Ethiopian Civil War
Ethiopian Civil War

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Shewa
SHEWA (Ge\'ez : ሸዋ? , Šawā; Amharic : Šewā? ), formerly romanized as SHOA or Scioà in Italian , is a historical region of Ethiopia , formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire . The modern Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is located at its center. The nucleus of Shewa is part of the mountainous plateau in what is currently the central area of Ethiopia, but prior to the Zemene Mesafint and after the loss of Bale with the invasion of Ahmed Al-Ghazi , Shewa was part of Ethiopia's southeasternmost frontier. Shewa was as defensible as any highland, and its government traced an administrative continuity with this earlier period despite the loss of neighboring lands to the Ethiopian Empire. At times, it was a haven; at other times, it was isolated from the rest of Ethiopia by hostile peoples. The towns of Debre Berhan , Antsokia , Ankober , Entoto and, after Shewa became a province of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa have all served as the capital of Shewa at various times
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Begemder
BEGEMDER ( Amharic
Amharic
: በጌምድር) (also GONDAR or GONDER after its 20th century capital ) was a province in the northwestern part of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
. Provinces of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in 1960 CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References ETYMOLOGYThere are several proposed etymologies for the name Begemder. One is that it came from Bega (Beja ) plus meder (land) (meaning land of the Bega or Beja), as an inscription of Emperor Ezana
Ezana
of Aksum describes his movement of 4,400 conquered Beja to a not yet located province named Matlia. A perhaps more plausible source for the name Bega is the self-name of the word Bega which means dry in the local language or another possible interpretation could be "sheep" where rearing of sheep which is called beg in Amharic
Amharic
in the
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Ethiopian Birr
The BIRR ( Amharic : ብር? ) is the unit of currency in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
. Before 1976, dollar was the official English translation of birr. Today, it is officially birr in English as well. In 1931, the Emperor of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Haile Selassie I , formally requested that the international community use the name Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(as it had already been known internally for at least 1600 years) instead of Abyssinia, and the issuing Bank of Abyssinia also became the Bank of Ethiopia. Thus, the pre-1931 currency could be considered the Abyssinian birr and the post-1931 currency the Ethiopian birr, although it was the same country and the same currency before and after. 186 billion birr were in circulation in 2008 ($14.7 billion or €9.97 billion)
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Quintal
The QUINTAL or CENTNER is a historical unit of mass in many countries which is usually defined as 100 base units of either pounds or kilograms . It is commonly used for grain prices in wholesale markets in India
India
, where 1 quintal = 100 kg. In British English
British English
, it referred to the hundredweight ; in American English , it formerly referred to an uncommon measure of 100 kilograms . CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Pound-based vs. kilogram-based * 3 English use * 4 See also * 5 References NAMEBoth terms share their roots in the Classical Latin
Classical Latin
centenarius, meaning hundredlike, but the quintal has a convoluted etymology: It became Late Latin
Late Latin
centenarium pondus, then in succession, Byzantine Greek κεντηνάριον (kentenarion) and Arabic qintar قنطار
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Desert Locust
The DESERT LOCUST ( Schistocerca gregaria) is a species of locust . Plagues of desert locusts have threatened agricultural production in Africa
Africa
, the Middle East
Middle East
, and Asia
Asia
for centuries. The livelihood of at least one-tenth of the world’s human population can be affected by this voracious insect. The desert locust is potentially the most dangerous of the locust pests because of the ability of swarms to fly rapidly across great distances. It has two to five generations per year. The last major desert locust upsurge in 2004–05 caused significant crop losses in West Africa
Africa
and had a negative impact on food security in the region. While the desert locust alone is not responsible for famines, it can be an important contributing factor
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Live Aid
LIVE AID was a dual-venue benefit concert held on 13 July 1985, and an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine . Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London
London
, England, United Kingdom (attended by 72,000 people) and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania, United States
United States
(attended by about 100,000 people). On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative happened in other countries, such as the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, Canada
Canada
, Japan
Japan
, Yugoslavia , Austria
Austria
, Australia
Australia
and West Germany
West Germany

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Do They Know It's Christmas?
"DO THEY KNOW IT\'S CHRISTMAS?" is a song written in 1984 by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure in reaction to television reports of the 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia
1983–85 famine in Ethiopia
. It was first recorded in a single day on 25 November 1984 by Band Aid , a supergroup put together by Geldof and Ure and consisting mainly of the biggest British and Irish musical acts at the time. The single was released in the United Kingdom on 3 December 1984 and aided by considerable publicity it entered the UK Singles Chart at number one and stayed there for five weeks, becoming the Christmas number one
Christmas number one
of 1984
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Tigray Province
TIGRAY was a province of the Ethiopian Empire and of the PDRE until 1995. Known by its French spelling TIGRé into the 20th century, its governors were powerful rulers in their own right and it was sometimes accorded the status of a separate kingdom . It gradually absorbed its neighboring provinces, including Semien , Tembien , Agame , and Enderta province and was superseded by the Tigray Region following the adoption of the 1995 constitution . HISTORY The historic flag of Tigray Mountains of Lemalimo near Inda Selassie in western Tigray Tigrayan-Tigrinyans were the main ethnicity of Kingdom of Aksum in the first millennium CE. Their language, a form of Ge\'ez , remained the language of the later Ethiopian imperial court as well as the Ethiopian Church
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Oromo Liberation Front
STATE ALLIES * Eritrea
Eritrea
NON-STATE ALLIES * ONLF * EPPF * SLF OPPONENTSSTATE OPPONENTS * Ethiopian Empire
Ethiopian Empire
(1973
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Gross National Product
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP) is the market value of all the products and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country. Unlike gross domestic product (GDP), which defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP indicates allocated production based on location of ownership. In fact it calculates income by the location of ownership and residence, and so its name is also the less ambiguous gross national income . GNP is an economic statistic that is equal to GDP plus any income earned by residents from overseas investments minus income earned within the domestic economy by overseas residents. GNP does not distinguish between qualitative improvements in the state of the technical arts (e.g., increasing computer processing speeds), and quantitative increases in goods (e.g., number of computers produced), and considers both to be forms of "economic growth "
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Alex De Waal
ALEXANDER WILLIAM LOWNDES "ALEX" DE WAAL (born 22 February 1963), a British writer and researcher on African issues, is the executive director of the World Peace Foundation at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University . Previously, he was a fellow of the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative at Harvard University
Harvard University
, as well as program director at the Social Science Research Council on AIDS in New York City. Considered one of the foremost experts on Sudan
Sudan
and the Horn of Africa, his scholarly work and practice has also probed humanitarian crisis and response, human rights, HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
and governance in Africa, and conflict and peacebuilding
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International Community
The INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world. The term is typically used to imply the existence of a common point of view towards such matters as specific issues of human rights . Activists, politicians, and commentators often use the term in calling for action to be taken; e.g., action against what is in their opinion political repression in a target country. The term is commonly used to imply legitimacy and consensus for a point of view on a disputed issue; e.g., to enhance the credibility of a majority vote in the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
. CRITICISM Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
alleges that the use of the term is used to refer to the United States
United States
and its allies and client states , as well as allies in the media of those states
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RAF
The ROYAL AIR FORCE (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force . Formed towards the end of the First World War
First World War
on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history , in particular, playing a large part in the Second World War
Second World War
where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain

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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada
O Canada
"------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen
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Polish People's Republic
The POLISH PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC (Polish : Polska Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of Poland
Poland
under Communist
Communist
control between 1952 and 1990 . The name was defined by the Constitution of 1952 which was based on the 1936 Soviet Constitution . Between 1947 and 1952, the name of the Polish state was the REPUBLIC OF POLAND (Rzeczpospolita Polska), in accordance with the temporary Constitution of 1947 . At the time of its founding during final stages of World War II
World War II
, Poland was regarded as a puppet entity set up and controlled by the Soviet Union , and over time, it developed into a satellite state of the Soviet Union
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