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1984 - 1985 Famine In Ethiopia
A widespread famine affected Ethiopia
Ethiopia
from 1983 to 1985. The worst famine to hit the country in a century, in northern Ethiopia
Ethiopia
it led to more than 400,000 deaths, but, according to Human Rights Watch , more than half its mortality could be attributed to "human rights abuses causing the famine to come earlier, strike harder and extend further than would otherwise have been the case". Other areas of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
experienced famine for similar reasons, resulting in tens of thousands of additional deaths. The famine as a whole took place a decade into the Ethiopian Civil War . The famine of 1983–85 is most often ascribed to drought ; climatic phenomena and consequences were the main causes for the famine. However, Human Rights Watch has alleged that widespread drought occurred only some months after the famine was under way
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Human Rights Watch
HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH (HRW) is an American-founded international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights . HRW headquarters are in New York City with offices in Amsterdam , Beirut , Berlin , Brussels , Chicago , Geneva , Johannesburg , London , Los Angeles , Moscow , Nairobi , Paris , San Francisco , Sydney , Tokyo , Toronto , Washington, D.C. , and Zurich . Human Rights Watch in 1997 shared in the Nobel Peace Prize as a founding member of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines , and it played a leading role in the 2008 treaty banning cluster munitions . The organization's annual expenses totaled $50.6 million in 2011 and $69.2 million in 2014
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Mengistu Haile Mariam
MENGISTU HAILE MARIAM ( Amharic : መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም? , pronounced ; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian politician who was the leader of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
from 1977 to 1991. He was the chairman of the Derg
Derg
, the Communist
Communist
military junta that governed Ethiopia, from 1977 to 1987, and the President of the People\'s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
from 1987 to 1991. The Derg
Derg
took power in the Ethiopian Revolution following the overthrow of Emperor Haile Selassie I in 1974, marking the end of the Solomonic dynasty which had ruled Ethiopia
Ethiopia
since the 13th century
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Zimbabwe
Coordinates : 20°S 30°E / 20°S 30°E / -20; 30 Republic of Zimbabwe * _Nyika yeZimbabwe_ (Shona ) * _Ilizwe leZimbabwe_ (Northern Ndebele ) List * _12 other official names:_ * _Dziko la Zimbabwe_ (Chichewa ) * _Dziko la Zimbabwe_ (Sena ) * _Hango yeZimbabwe_ (Kalanga ) * _ Zimbabwe Nù_ (Koisan ) * _Inyika yeZimbabwe_ ( Nambya ) * _Nyika yeZimbabwe_ (Ndau ) * _Tiko ra Zimbabwe_ (Tsonga ) * _Naha ya Zimbabwe_ (Sotho ) * _Cisi ca Zimbabwe_ (Tonga ) * _Naga ya Zimbabwe_ (Tswana ) * _Shango ḽa Zimbabwe_ ( Venda ) * _Ilizwe leZimbabwe_ (Xho
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Famines In Ethiopia
Subjectively the Economy of Ethiopia was based on subsistence agriculture , with an aristocracy that consumed the surplus. Due to a number of causes, the peasants lacked incentives to either improve production or to store their excess harvest ; as a result, they lived from harvest to harvest. Despite the extensive modernization of Ethiopia in the last 120 years, as of 2016, about 80% of the population are peasants who still live from harvest to harvest, and are vulnerable to crop failures. YEAR DESCRIPTION First half of 9th century Followed by epidemic 1535 Famine and epidemic in Tigray . As described in the Futuh al-Habasha, this took a heavy toll on Imam Ahmad Gragn
Ahmad Gragn
's army: "When they entered Tigray each Muslim had fifty mules; some of them even one-hundred. When they left, each one of them had only one or two mules." (Paul Lester Stenhouse translator, The Conquest of Abyssinia , p
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Ethiopia
Coordinates : 8°N 38°E / 8°N 38°E / 8; 38 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ _yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk_ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: _ወደፊት ገስግሺ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ_ _ March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia _ Capital and largest city Addis Ababa 9°1′N 38°45′E / 9.017°N 38.750°E / 9.017; 38.750 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES None WORKING L
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Human Rights
HUMAN RIGHTS are moral principles or norms that describe certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and international law . They are commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights "to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being," and which are "inherent in all human beings" regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status. They are applicable everywhere and at every time in the sense of being universal , and they are egalitarian in the sense of being the same for everyone. They are regarded as requiring empathy and the rule of law and imposing an obligation on persons to respect the human rights of others, and it is generally considered that they should not be taken away except as a result of due process based on specific circumstances; for example, human rights may include freedom from unlawful imprisonment , torture and execution
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Ethiopian Civil War
Fall of the Communist Mengistu government, installation of TPLF -led transitional government, to become EPRDF government. Cuban military withdrawal
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Drought
A DROUGHT is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water . A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy . Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour . Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae (or cacti ), have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought. Some others survive dry periods as buried seeds. Semi-permanent drought produces arid biomes such as deserts and grasslands
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Oxfam UK
OXFAM is an international confederation of charitable organizations focused on the alleviation of global poverty . Oxfam
Oxfam
was founded at 17 Broad Street in Oxford
Oxford
, Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
, in 1942 as the OXFORD COMMITTEE FOR FAMINE RELIEF by a group of Quakers , social activists , and Oxford
Oxford
academics; this is now OXFAM GREAT BRITAIN, still based in Oxford. It was one of several local committees formed in support of the National Famine Relief Committee. Their mission was to persuade the British government to allow food relief through the Allied blockade for the starving citizens of occupied Greece
Greece
. The first overseas Oxfam
Oxfam
was founded in Canada
Canada
in 1963. The organization changed its name to its telegraphic address , OXFAM, in 1965
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Counter-insurgency
A COUNTER-INSURGENCY or COUNTERINSURGENCY (COIN) can de defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes". An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents . It is the organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify or challenge political control of a region. As such, it is primarily a political struggle, in which both sides use armed force to create space for their political, economic and influence activities to be effective. Counter-insurgency
Counter-insurgency
campaigns of duly-elected or politically recognized governments take place during war , occupation by a foreign military or police force, and when internal conflicts that involve subversion and armed rebellion occur
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"Red Terror" Martyrs' Memorial Museum
The "RED TERROR" MARTYRS\' MEMORIAL MUSEUM in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
was established in 2010 as a memorial to the victims of the Red Terror under the Derg regime. The museum has displays of torture instruments, skulls and bones, coffins, bloody clothes, and photographs of victims. In free tours of the museum, guides describes the history leading up to the Red Terror (starting from Haile Selassie 's 80th birthday celebration), the actions taken toward citizens who opposed the Derg, how the prisoners were treated and how they secretly communicated among each other. The museum also features pictorial history of the Red Terror. * Objects in the museum * Exhibit in the museum * Red Terror Martyr Memorial Museum, Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
SEE ALSO * Red Terror (Ethiopia) * Derg REFERENCES * ^ "Red Terror Martyrs\' Memorial Museum". rtmmm.org
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Resettlement And Villagization In Ethiopia
RESETTLEMENT AND VILLAGIZATION IN ETHIOPIA has been an issue from the late nineteenth century up to the present, due to the overcrowded population of the Ethiopian highlands . As the population of Ethiopia has increased in the twentieth century, the need to move inhabitants has only increased as available cropland per family declined to its current level of less than one hectare per farmer. CONTENTS * 1 Precursors * 2 Resettlement under the Derg * 2.1 Villagization in the 1980s * 3 Voluntary resettlement in the 2000s * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading PRECURSORSThe policy of encouraging voluntary resettlement and villagization in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
began in 1958, when the government established the first known planned resettlement in Sidamo Province
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Economy Of Ethiopia
The ECONOMY OF ETHIOPIA is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector. Ethiopian government is in the process of privatizing many of the state-owned businesses and moving toward a market economy . However, the banking , telecommunication and transportation sectors of the economy are dominated by government-owned companies. Ethiopia
Ethiopia
has one of the fastest-growing economies in the world and is Africa’s second most populous country. Many properties owned by the government during the previous regime have now been privatized and are in the process of privatization. However, certain sectors such as telecommunications , financial and insurance services, air and land transportation services, and retail, are considered as strategic sectors and are expected to remain under state control for the foreseeable future
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Agriculture
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology
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Wollo
WOLLO (Amharic : ወሎ) is a historical region and province in the northeastern part of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, with its capital city at Dessie
Dessie
. An older name for Wollo, before 1850 AD, is Bete Amhara . Following the defeat of Italian colonial authority in 1941, Amhara Sayint , Lasta , Raya , Wag
Wag
and Yejju were annexed to Wollo. Peasant rebellions rocked the province, which included the Woyane rebellion in 1943, and revolts of the Yejju in 1948 and 1970. With the adoption of the new constitution in 1995 , Wollo was divided between the Afar Region , which absorbed the part of the province that extended into the Afar Depression ; the