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1937 Orizaba Earthquake
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami
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Earthquake (other)
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust ( the outer layer) that creates seismic waves. Earthquake
Earthquake
may also refer to:Contents1 Fictional characters 2 Film and TV 3 Food 4 Music 5 People 6 Religion 7 Sports and events 8 Other 9 See alsoFictional characters[edit] Earthquake
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Earth
Earth
Earth
is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4.5 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year
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Earthquake Prediction
Earthquake
Earthquake
prediction is a branch of the science of seismology concerned with the specification of the time, location, and magnitude of future earthquakes within stated limits,[1] and particularly "the determination of parameters for the next strong earthquake to occur in a region.[2] Earthquake
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Coordinating Committee For Earthquake Prediction
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami
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Earthquake Forecasting
Earthquake
Earthquake
forecasting is a branch of the science of seismology concerned with the probabilistic assessment of general earthquake hazard, including the frequency and magnitude of damaging earthquakes in a given area over years or decades.[1] While forecasting is usually considered to be a type of prediction, earthquake forecasting is often differentiated from earthquake prediction, whose goal is the specification of the time, location, and magnitude of future earthquakes with sufficient precision that a warning can be issued.[2][3] Both forecasting and prediction of earthquakes are distinguished from earthquake
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Shear Wave Splitting
Shear wave
Shear wave
splitting, also called seismic birefringence, is the phenomenon that occurs when a polarized shear wave enters an anisotropic medium (Fig. 1). The incident shear wave splits into two polarized shear waves (Fig. 2). Shear wave
Shear wave
splitting is typically used as a tool for testing the anisotropy of an area of interest. These measurements reflect the degree of anisotropy and lead to a better understanding of the area’s crack density and orientation or crystal alignment.[1] We can think of the anisotropy of a particular area as a black box and the shear wave splitting measurements as a way of looking at what is in the box.Figure 1. (a) isotropic media, (b) anisotropic media with preferentially oriented cracks.Figure 2. Animation of shear wave splitting upon entering an anisotropic medium. Courtesy of Ed Garnero.Figure 3. Polarization diagram of shear wave arrivals
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Adams–Williamson Equation
The Adams–Williamson equation, named after L. H. Adams and E. D. Williamson, is an equation used to determine density as a function of radius, more commonly used to determine the relation between the velocities of seismic waves and the density of the Earth's interior.[1] Given the average density of rocks at the Earth's surface and profiles of the P-wave
P-wave
and S-wave
S-wave
speeds as function of depth, it can predict how density increases with depth.[2] It assumes that the compression is adiabatic and that the Earth is spherically symmetric, homogeneous, and in hydrostatic equilibrium. It can also be applied to spherical shells with that property. It is an important part of models of the Earth's interior such as the Preliminary reference Earth model (PREM).[3][4] History[edit] Williamson and Adams first developed the theory in 1923
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Flinn–Engdahl Regions
In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law. Apart from the global continental regions, there are also hydrospheric and atmospheric regions that cover the oceans, and discrete climates above the land and water masses of the planet
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Earthquake Engineering
Earthquake
Earthquake
engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. An earthquake (or seismic) engineer aims to construct structures that will not be damaged in minor shaking and will avoid serious damage or collapse in a major earthquake. Earthquake
Earthquake
engineering is the scientific field concerned with protecting society, the natural environment, and the man-made environment from earthquakes by limiting the seismic risk to socio-economically acceptable levels.[1] Traditionally, it has been narrowly defined as the study of the behavior of structures and geo-structures subject to seismic loading; it is considered as a subset of structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, applied physics, etc
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Seismite
Seismites are sedimentary beds and structures deformed by seismic shaking. The German paleontologist Adolf Seilacher
Adolf Seilacher
first used the term in 1969[1] to describe earthquake-deformed layers. Today, the term is applied to both sedimentary layers and soft sediment deformation structures formed by shaking. This subtle change in usage accommodates structures that may not remain within a layer (i.e., clastic dikes or sand volcanos).[2][3] Caution is urged when applying the term to features observed in the field, as similar-looking features may be products of either seismic or non-seismic perturbation.[4][5][6] Several informal classification systems exist to help geologists distinguish seismites from other soft-sediment deformation features,[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] though a formal, standardized system has not been developed. Geologists use seismites, in combination with other evidence, to better understand the earthquake history of an area
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Seismology
Seismology
Seismology
( /saɪzˈmɒlədʒi/; from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth
Earth
or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes such as explosions. A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology. A recording of earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram
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Index Of Geology Articles
This is a list of all articles related to geology that cannot be readily placed on the following subtopic pages:Geologic time scale List of compounds Lists of earthquakes List of elements by name Geology
Geology
of the English countiesList of geologists List of fluvial topics List of landforms List of minerals List of oil fieldsList of plate tectonics topics List of rock types List of tectonic plates List of volcanoesContents: Top A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA[edit]Asthenosphere Astrogeology AulacogenB[edit]


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Lithosphere
A lithosphere (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere") is the rigid,[1] outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. The study of past and current formations of landscapes is called geomorphology.Contents1 Earth's lithosphere1.1 History of the concept 1.2 Types1.2.1 Oceanic lithosphere 1.2.2 Subducted lithosphere2 Mantle xenoliths 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksEarth's lithosphere Earth's lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. The lithosphere is subdivided into tectonic plates
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Seismic Magnitude Scales
Seismic magnitude scales
Seismic magnitude scales
are used to describe the overall strength or "size" of an earthquake. These are distinguished from seismic intensity scales that categorize the intensity or severity of ground shaking (quaking) caused by an earthquake at a given location. Magnitudes are usually determined from measurements of an earthquake's seismic waves as recorded on a seismogram. Magnitude scales vary on the type and component of the seismic waves measured and the calculations used
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Seismicity
Seismicity is a measure which encompasses earthquake occurrences, mechanisms, and magnitude at a given geographical location.[1] As such it summarizes a region's seismic activity. The term was coined by Beno Gutenberg and Charles Francis Richter
Charles Francis Richter
in 1941. Seismicity is studied by geophysicists. Calculation of seismicity[edit] Seismicity is quantitatively computed
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