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1918 Flu Pandemic
The 1918 FLU PANDEMIC (January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic , the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1
H1N1
influenza virus . It infected 500 million people around the world, including remote Pacific islands and the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million (three to five percent of the world's population ), making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history. Disease had already greatly limited life expectancy in the early 20th century. A considerable spike occurred at the time of the pandemic, specifically the year 1918. Life expectancy in the United States alone dropped by about 12 years. Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill juvenile, elderly, or already weakened patients; in contrast, the 1918 pandemic predominantly killed previously healthy young adults. There are several possible explanations for the high mortality rate of the 1918 influenza pandemic
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Fort Riley
FORT RILEY is a List of United States
United States
Army installation located in North Central Kansas
North Central Kansas
, on the Kansas
Kansas
River , also known as the Kaw, between Junction City
City
and Manhattan . The Fort Riley
Fort Riley
Military Reservation covers 101,733 acres (41,170 ha) in Geary and Riley counties. The portion of the fort that contains housing development is part of the Fort Riley
Fort Riley
census-designated place , with a residential population of 7,761 as of the 2010 census . The fort has a daytime population of nearly 25,000. The ZIP code
ZIP code
is 66442
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Kansas
KANSAS /ˈkænzəs/ (_ listen ) is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States . Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita . Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name (natively kką:ze_) is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although this was probably not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes . Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison . Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1812, in what is now Bonner Springs , but the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery issue. When it was officially opened to settlement by the U.S
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Camp Funston
CAMP FUNSTON was a U.S. Army training camp located on Fort Riley , southwest of Manhattan, Kansas
Manhattan, Kansas
. The camp was named for Brigadier General Frederick Funston
Frederick Funston
(1865–1917). Camp Funston
Camp Funston
was one of sixteen Divisional Cantonment Training Camps established at the outbreak of World War I
World War I
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY See also: History of Kansas Construction began during the summer of 1917 and eventually encompassed approximately 1,400 buildings on 2,000 acres (8.1 km2). During World War I, nearly 50,000 recruits trained at the camp, commanded by Major General Leonard Wood
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Influenza
INFLUENZA, commonly known as "the FLU", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus . Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: a high fever , runny nose , sore throat , muscle pains , headache , coughing , and feeling tired . These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks. In children, there may be nausea and vomiting , but these are not common in adults. Nausea and vomiting occur more commonly in the unrelated infection gastroenteritis , which is sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu". Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia , secondary bacterial pneumonia , sinus infections , and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure . Three types of influenza viruses affect people, called Type A, Type B, and Type C
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Avian Influenza
AVIAN INFLUENZA — known informally as _avian flu_ or BIRD FLU — refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds ." The type with the greatest risk is HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA (HPAI). " Bird
Bird
flu" is a phrase same to that of"swine flu ," "dog flu ," "horse flu ," or "human flu " in that it refers to a sickness caused by any of many different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A , B , and C ), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu
Spanish flu
virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains
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Influenza A Virus Subtype H5N1
INFLUENZA A VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS OF TYPE A OF SUBTYPE H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1
H5N1
flu , commonly known as AVIAN INFLUENZA ("BIRD FLU"). It is enzootic (maintained in the population) in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia. It is epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) and panzootic (affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area), killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of others to stem its spread. Many references to "bird flu" and H5N1
H5N1
in the popular media refer to this strain
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Canine Influenza
CANINE INFLUENZA (DOG FLU) is influenza occurring in canine animals. Canine influenza
Canine influenza
is caused by varieties of influenzavirus A , such as equine influenza virus H3N8 , which in 2004 was discovered to cause disease in dogs. Because of the lack of previous exposure to this virus, dogs have no natural immunity to it. Therefore, the disease is rapidly transmitted between individual dogs. Canine influenza
Canine influenza
may be endemic in some regional dog populations of the United States. It is a disease with a high morbidity (incidence of symptoms) but a low incidence of death . A newer form was identified in Asia during the 2000s and has since caused outbreaks in the US as well. It is a mutation of H3N2 that adapted from its avian influenza origins. Vaccines have been developed for both strains
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Equine Influenza
EQUINE INFLUENZA (HORSE FLU) is the disease caused by strains of influenza A that are enzootic in horse species. Equine influenza occurs globally, previously caused by two main strains of virus: equine-1 ( H7N7 ) and equine-2 ( H3N8 ). The OIE now considers H7N7 strains likely to be extinct since these stains have not been isolated for over 20 years. Predominant international circulating H3N8 strains are Florida sublineage of the American lineage; clade 1 predominates in the Americas and clade 2 in Europe. (Elton and Cullinane, 2013; Paillot, 2014; Slater et al., 2013).The disease has a nearly 100% infection rate in an unvaccinated horse population with no prior exposure to the virus. While equine influenza is historically not known to affect humans, impacts of past outbreaks have been devastating due to the economic reliance on horses for communication (postal service), military (cavalry), and general transportation
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Swine Influenza
SWINE INFLUENZA is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses . SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS (SIV) or SWINE-ORIGIN INFLUENZA VIRUS (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs . As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1 , H1N2 , H2N1, H3N1 , H3N2 , and H2N3 . The Swine flu was initially seen in humans in Mexico in 2009, where the strand of the particular virus was a marriage of 3 types of strands. Six of the genes are very similar to the H1N2 influenza virus that was found in pigs around 2000. Swine influenza
Swine influenza
virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu , often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood
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Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1
INFLUENZA A (H1 N1 ) VIRUS is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu
Spanish Flu
. It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase . For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic synergy. Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell. Neuraminidase are a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which help to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza . H1N1 strains caused a small percentage of all human flu infections in 2004–2005
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Influenza Vaccine
INFLUENZA VACCINES, also known as FLU SHOTS or JABS, are vaccines that protect against influenza . A new version of the vaccine is developed twice a year as the influenza virus rapidly changes. While their effectiveness varies from year to year, most provide modest to high protection against influenza. They decrease the number of missed days of work by a half day on average. Vaccinating children may protect those around them. The effectiveness in those under two years old and over 65 years old is unknown due to the low quality of the research. The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends yearly vaccination for nearly all people over the age of six months, especially those at high risk. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control also recommends yearly vaccination of high risk groups
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2009 Flu Pandemic Vaccine
The 2009 FLU PANDEMIC VACCINES are the set of influenza vaccines that have been developed to protect against the pandemic H1N1/09 virus . These vaccines either contain inactivated (killed) influenza virus, or weakened live virus that cannot cause influenza. The killed vaccine is injected, while the live vaccine is given as an interperineal nasal spray. Both these types of vaccine are usually produced by growing the virus in chicken eggs. Around three billion doses will be produced annually, with delivery from November 2009. In studies, the vaccine appears both effective and safe, providing a strong protective immune response and having similar safety profile to the normal seasonal influenza vaccine. However, about 30% of people already have some immunity to the virus, with the vaccine conferring greatest benefit on young people, since many older people are already immune through exposure to similar viruses in the past
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Pandemrix
PANDEMRIX is an influenza vaccine for influenza pandemics , such as the H1N1
H1N1
2009 flu pandemic colloquially called the swine flu. The vaccine was developed by GlaxoSmithKline and patented in September 2006. The vaccine is one of the H1N1
H1N1
vaccines approved for use by the European Commission
European Commission
in September 2009 upon the recommendations of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). The vaccine is only approved for use when an H1N1
H1N1
influenza pandemic has been officially declared by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) or European Union
European Union
(EU). This vaccine was initially developed as a pandemic mock-up vaccine using an H5N1
H5N1
strain
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Fluzone
FLUZONE is a brand of influenza vaccine , distributed by Sanofi Pasteur . It is a split-virus vaccine that is produced by chemical disruption of the influenza virus. Therefore, it is incapable of causing influenza. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Adverse effects * 3 High-dose vaccine * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Fluzone
Fluzone
is typically administered in a single dose by intramuscular injection; an intradermal injection is also available. It is presented as a 0.25 ml syringe for pediatric use, as a 0.5 ml syringe for adults and children, as a 0.5 ml vial for adults and children, and as a 5 ml vial for adults and children. Fluzone
Fluzone
must be refrigerated under temperatures from 2 to 8 °C (36 to 46 °F) and is inactivated by freezing. Fluzone
Fluzone
was initially approved in 1980 by the FDA. Fluzone
Fluzone
comes in three versions that are thimerosal -free
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Influvac
INFLUVAC is a sub-unit vaccine produced and marketed by Abbott Laboratories . It contains inactivated purified surface fragments (sub-units) from the three different strains of the influenza virus ( A/H1N1 , A/H3N2 , and Influenza B Virus) that are selected and distributed by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
, on the basis of their latest recommendations. In February 2010, Abbott acquired the vaccines sub-unit from Solvay Pharmaceuticals included in its $6.2 billion purchase and the sub-unit influenza vaccine - Influvac
Influvac
has been commercially available on the market since the early nineteen-eighties. With the acquisition of Solvay, Abbott retained access to the Eastern European, Middle Eastern "> * ^ A B Giezeman, K.M.; J. Nauta; I.A. de Bruijn; A.M. Palache (2009). "Trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine Influvac: 25-Year experience of safety and immunogenicity". Vaccine
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