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1918 Flu Pandemic
The 1918 flu pandemic
1918 flu pandemic
(January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1
H1N1
influenza virus.[1] It infected 500 million people around the world,[2] including people on remote Pacific islands and in the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million (three to five percent of the world's population),[3] making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.[4][5][6] Disease had already greatly limited life expectancy in the early 20th century
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Alfred W. Crosby
Alfred W. Crosby Jr. (January 15, 1931, Boston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
– March 14, 2018, Nantucket Island) was Professor Emeritus of History, Geography, and American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, Harvard University and University of Helsinki. He was the author of such books as The Columbian Exchange (1972) and Ecological Imperialism (1986). In these works, he provided biological and geographical explanations for why Europeans were able to succeed with relative ease in what he referred to as the Neo-Europes of Australasia, North America, and southern South America.Contents1 Career 2 Books 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksCareer[edit] Recognizing the majority of modern-day wealth is located in Europe
Europe
and the Neo-Europes, Crosby set out to investigate what historical causes are behind the disparity
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Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine
Live attenuated influenza vaccine
Live attenuated influenza vaccine
(LAIV) is a type of influenza vaccine in the form of a nasal spray that is recommended for the prevention of influenza.[2] In June 2016 the CDC stopped recommending the use of LAIV as its effectiveness has appeared to have decreased between 2013 and 2016,[3] but this recommendation was reversed in February 2018 for the 2018-2019 influenza season.[4] It is an attenuated vaccine, unlike most influenza vaccines, which are inactivated vaccines. LAIV is administered intranasally,[5] while inactivated vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection. LAIV is sold under the trade name FluMist in the United States
United States
and Canada, and Fluenz[1] in Europe
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King Alfonso XIII
Alphons (Latinized Alphonsus, Adelphonsus, Adefonsus) is a male given name recorded from the 8th century (Alfonso I of Asturias, r. 739-757) in the Christian successor states of the Visigothic kingdom in the Iberian peninsula. In the later medieval period it became a standard name in the Hispanic and Portuguese royal families. It is derived from a Gothic name, or a conflation of several Gothic names; from *Aþalfuns, composed of the elements aþal "noble" and funs "eager, brave, ready", and perhaps influenced by names such as *Alafuns, *Adefuns and *Hildefuns. It is recorded as Adefonsus in the 9th and 10th century,[1] and as Adelfonsus, Adelphonsus in the 10th to 11th
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Encephalitis Lethargica
Encephalitis lethargica is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as "sleeping sickness" or "sleepy sickness" (distinct from tsetse fly-transmitted sleeping sickness), it was first described in 1917 by the neurologist Constantin von Economo[1][2] and the pathologist Jean-René Cruchet.[3] The disease attacks the brain, leaving some victims in a statue-like condition, speechless and motionless.[4] Between 1915 and 1926,[5] an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica spread around the world. Nearly five million people were affected, a third of whom died in the acute stages. Many of those who survived never returned to their pre-existing "aliveness".They would be conscious and aware – yet not fully awake; they would sit motionless and speechless all day in their chairs, totally lacking energy, impetus, initiative, motive, appetite, affect or desire; they registered what went on about them without active attention, and with profound indifference
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Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. In short, trying to work out why certain people are getting ill. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review)
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Immune System
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity
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2007 Australian Equine Influenza Outbreak
Australians
Australians
(/əˈstreɪliən/), colloquially known as Aussies (/ˈɒzi/), are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language (Australian English). Present-day Australians
Australians
are citizens of the Commonwealth of Australia, governed by its nationality law. The majority of Australians
Australians
descend from the peoples of the British Isles. The Colony of New South Wales
Colony of New South Wales
was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, and five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states
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Outbreak
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or impact upon thousands of people across an entire continent. Two linked cases of a rare infectious disease may be sufficient to constitute an outbreak. Outbreaks include epidemics, which term is normally only used for infectious diseases, as well as diseases with an environmental origin, such as a water or foodborne disease. They may affect a region in a country or a group of countries. Pandemics are near-global disease outbreaks.Contents1 Outbreak
Outbreak
investigation 2 Types 3 Outbreak
Outbreak
legislation 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Outbreak
Outbreak
investigation[edit] When investigating disease outbreaks, the epidemiology profession has developed a number of widely accepted steps
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Asian Flu In 1957
Asian may refer to:Items from or related to the continent of Asia: Asian people, people who descend from Asia Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asia Asian (cat), a cat breed similar to the Burmese but in a range of different coat colors an
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Kansas
Kansas
Kansas
/ˈkænzəs/ ( listen) is a U.S. state
U.S. state
in the Midwestern United States.[10] Its capital is Topeka
Topeka
and its largest city is Wichita. Kansas
Kansas
is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area.[11] The tribe's name (natively kką:ze) is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although this was probably not the term's original meaning.[12][13] For thousands of years, what is now Kansas
Kansas
was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys
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Vitamin D And Respiratory Tract Infections
A link between vitamin D and respiratory tract infections has been hypothesised. According to the hypothesis, vitamin D deficiency may predispose to infection. Evidence supporting the hypothesis derives from some scientific studies and the observation that outbreaks of respiratory infections occur predominantly during months associated with lower exposure to the sun. Evidence against the hypothesis has also been reported
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Cytokine Storm
Cytokine release syndrome is a form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome that arises as a complication of some diseases or infections, and is also an adverse effect of some monoclonal antibody drugs, as well as adoptive T-cell
T-cell
therapies.[1][2] Severe cases have been called "cytokine storms".[3] The term "cytokine storm" appears to have been first used in 1993 in a discussion of graft vs
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Fluzone
Fluzone
Fluzone
is a brand of influenza vaccine, distributed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is a split-virus vaccine that is produced by chemical disruption of the influenza virus. Therefore, it is incapable of causing influenza.Contents1 History 2 Adverse effects 3 High-dose vaccine 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Fluzone
Fluzone
is typically administered in a single dose by intramuscular injection;[1] an intradermal injection is also available.[2] It is presented as a 0.25 ml syringe for pediatric use, as a 0.5 ml syringe for adults and children, as a 0.5 ml vial for adults and children, and as a 5 ml vial for adults and children.[1] Fluzone
Fluzone
must be refrigerated under temperatures from 2 to 8 °C (36 to 46 °F) and is inactivated by freezing
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Influvac
Influvac
Influvac
is a sub-unit vaccine produced and marketed by Abbott Laboratories. It contains inactivated purified surface fragments (sub-units) from the three different strains of the influenza virus (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and Influenza
Influenza
B Virus) that are selected and distributed by the World Health Organization, on the basis of their latest recommendations.[1] In February 2010, Abbott acquired the vaccines sub-unit from Solvay Pharmaceuticals included in its $6.2 billion purchase[2] and the sub-unit influenza vaccine - Influvac
Influvac
has been commercially available on the market since the early nineteen-eighties.[1] With the acquisition of Solvay, Abbott retained access to the Eastern European, Middle Eastern & Latin American markets. Approximately $850 million of sales revenue from vaccines was reported by Solvay Pharmaceuticals in 2009.[2] References[edit]^ a b Giezeman, K.M.; J. Nauta; I.A
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CSL Limited
CSL Limited
CSL Limited
is a global specialty biotechnology company that researches, develops, manufactures and markets products to treat and prevent serious human medical conditions. CSL's product areas include blood plasma derivatives, vaccines, antivenom, and cell culture reagents used in various medical and genetic research and manufacturing applications.[2]Contents1 History 2 Locations 3 Ownership 4 Vaccine for A/H1N1 2009 Pandemic 5 Divisions5.1 Seqirus (bioCSL) 5.2 CSL Behring (Australia) 5.3 CSL Behring6 See also 7 References 8 NotesHistory[edit] Founded in 1916 the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, an Australian government body focused on vaccine manufacture. Under the first director, William Penfold,[3] CSL commenced operation in the vacant Walter and Eliza Hall Institute building at the Melbourne
Melbourne
Hospital in 1918, before moving to its purpose-built Parkville premises in the following year
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