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1910s
The 1910s
1910s
(pronounced "nineteen-tens", also abbreviated as the "teens") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
that began on January 1, 1910, and ended on December 31, 1919. The 1910s
1910s
represented the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th century. The conservative lifestyles during the first half of the decade, as well as the legacy of military alliances, was forever changed by the assassination, on June 28, 1914, of Archduke
Archduke
Franz Ferdinand, the heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. The murder triggered a chain of events in which, within 33 days, World War I
World War I
broke out in Europe
Europe
on August 1, 1914
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][Note 1] It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October
October
1582. It was a refinement to the Julian calendar[3] involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Militarism
Militarism
Militarism
is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia
Russia
and France.[1] It may also
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Military Alliance
A military alliance is an international agreement concerning national security, when the contracting parties agree to mutual protection and support in case of a crisis that has not been identified in advance.[1] Military alliances differ from coalitions, as coalitions are formed for a crisis that are already known.[1] Military alliances can be classified into defense pacts, non-aggression pacts and ententes.[2]Contents1 Characteristics 2 European historiography 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further readingCharacteristics[edit] Military alliances are related to collective security systems but can differ in nature. An early 1950s memorandum from the United States Department of State explained the difference by saying, that historically alliances "were designed to advance the respective nationalistic interests of the parties, and provided for joint military action if one of the parties in pursuit of such objectives became involved in war"
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Archduke
Archduke
Archduke
(feminine: Archduchess; German: Erzherzog, feminine form: Erzherzogin) was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg
Habsburg
rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), which was below that of Emperor
Emperor
and King
King
and above that of (debatably) a Grand Duke, Duke
Duke
and Prince.[1] The territory ruled by an Archduke
Archduke
or Archduchess was called an Archduchy
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Archduke Franz Ferdinand Of Austria
Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke
Archduke
of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary
Hungary
and of Bohemia
Bohemia
and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.[1] His assassination in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia
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Heir Presumptive
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent, male or female, or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.[1][2] The position is however subject to law and/or conventions that may alter who is entitled to be heir presumptive. Depending on the rules of the monarchy the heir presumptive might be the daughter of a monarch (if males take priority over females and the monarch has no sons), or the senior member of a collateral line (if the monarch is childless); the birth of a legitimate child to the monarch will displace the former heir presumptive by a new heir apparent or heir presumptive
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Throne
A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions.[1] "Throne" in an abstract sense can also refer to the monarchy or the Crown itself, an instance of metonymy, and is also used in many expressions such as "the power behind the throne". The expression "ascend (mount) the throne" takes its meaning from the steps leading up to the dais or platform, on which the throne is placed, being formerly comprised in the word's significance.[2] When used in a political or governmental sense, throne typically refers to a civilization, nation, tribe, or other politically designated group that is organized or governed under an authoritarian system
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Ceasefire
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have also been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces. A ceasefire is usually more limited than a broader armistice, which is a formal agreement to end fighting
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Treaty Of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
Versailles
(French: Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I
World War I
to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand which directly lead to World War I. The other Central Powers
Central Powers
on the German side of World War I
World War I
signed separate treaties.[8] Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty
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List Of Years
This page indexes the individual years pages.Contents1 3rd millennium1.1 21st century2 2nd millennium2.1 20th century 2.2 19th century 2.3 18th century 2.4 17th century 2.5 16th century 2.6 15th century 2.7 14th century 2.8 13th century 2.9 12th century 2.10 11th century3 1st millennium3.1 10th century 3.2 9th century 3.3 8th century 3.4 7th century 3.5 6th century 3.6 5th century 3.7 4th century 3.8 3rd century 3.9 2nd century 3.10 1st century4 1st millennium
1st millennium
BC4.1
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Abdication
Abdication
Abdication
is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority; To give up leadership.Contents1 Terminology 2 Western classical antiquity 3 British and Commonwealth history 4 Japanese history 5 Abdications 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTerminology[edit]Tomb effigy of heart of King John II Casimir Vasa
John II Casimir Vasa
at Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris, showing removal of the crownThe word abdication derives from the Latin
Latin
abdicatio meaning to disown or renounce (from ab, away from, and dicare, to dedicate or relinquish). In its broadest sense abdication is the act of renouncing and resigning from any formal office, but it is applied especially to the supreme office of state
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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