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17th Century
The 1 7th century
7th century
was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque
Baroque
cultural movement, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle (fr) dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War,[1] the Great Turkish War, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.[2] Louis XIV
Louis XIV
visiting the Académie des sciences in 1671
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Louis XIV
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the God-Given (Louis Dieudonné), Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 4, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.[1][2] In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power.[3] Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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Century
A century (from the Latin
Latin
centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.[1]) is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages. A centenary is a hundredth anniversary, or a celebration of this, typically the remembrance of an event which took place a hundred years earlier.Contents1 Start and end in the Gregorian calendar1.1 Viewpoint 1: Strict usage 1.2 Viewpoint 2: General usage2 1st century BC and AD 3 Dating units in other calendar systems 4 Centuries in astronomical year numbering 5 Alternative naming systems 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyStart and end in the Gregorian calendar[edit] Although a century can mean any arbitrary period of 100 years, there are two viewpoints on the nature of standard centuries
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Grand Siècle
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the God-Given (Louis Dieudonné), Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 4, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.[1][2] In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power.[3] Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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French Academy Of Sciences
The French Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences
(French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV
Louis XIV
at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research
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New York City
Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island)Historic colonies New Netherland Province of New YorkSettled 1624Consolidated 1898Named for James, Duke of YorkGovernment[2] • Type Mayor–Council • Body New York City
New York City
Council • Mayor Bill de Blasio
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Shōgun
A shōgun (将軍, [ɕoːɡɯɴ] ( listen)) was the military dictator of Japan
Japan
during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions). In most of this period, the shōguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality.[1] The shōguns held almost absolute power over territories through military means
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Tokugawa Ieyasu
Illegitimate:Yūki Hideyasu Toku-hime Tokugawa Hidetada Matsudaira Tadayoshi Takeda Nobuyoshi Matsudaira Tadateru Matsudaira Matsuchiyo Matsudaira Senchiyo Tokugawa Yoshinao Tokugawa Yorinobu Tokugawa Yorifusa Furihime Matsuhime IchihimeAmong others...ParentsMatsudaira Hirotada Odai-no-kataThe Tokugawa clan
Tokugawa clan
crest Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
(徳川 家康, January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan
Japan
from the Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, and abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616
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Miyamoto Musashi
Miyamoto Musashi
Miyamoto Musashi
(宮本 武蔵, c. 1584 – June 13, 1645), also known as Shinmen Takezō, Miyamoto Bennosuke or, by his Buddhist
Buddhist
name, Niten Dōraku,[1] was a Japanese swordsman, philosopher, writer and rōnin. Musashi, as he was often simply known, became renowned through stories of his excellent and unique double-bladed swordsmanship and undefeated record in his 61 duels (next is 33 by Itō Ittōsai). He was the founder of the Niten-Ichi-Ryû-School or Niten-ryū style of swordsmanship and in his final years authored The Book of Five Rings (五輪の書, Go Rin No Sho), and Dokkōdō (The Path of Aloneness). Both documents were given to Terao Magonojō, the most important of Musashi's students, seven days before Musashi's death. Go Rin No Sho deals primarily with the character of his Niten-Ichi-Ryū-School in a concrete sense e.g
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Albrecht Von Wallenstein
Long Turkish War Uskok War Thirty Years' WarBattle of White Mountain Battle of Dessau Bridge Siege of Stralsund Battle of Wolgast Battle of the Alte Veste Battle of Lützen Battle of SteinauAwards Order of the Golden FleeceAlbrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein ( pronunciation (help·info); Czech: Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna;[1] 24 September 1583 – 25 February 1634),[2] also von Waldstein,[a] was a Bohemian[b] military leader and an Imperial Count Palatine, who offered his services and an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men to Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
(1618–48)
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René Descartes
René Descartes
René Descartes
(/ˈdeɪˌkɑːrt/;[9] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian";[10] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is a response to his writings,[11][12] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
and the Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of the United Provinces
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Tsar
Tsar
Tsar
(/zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/) (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь [usually written thus with a title] or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism
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Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][Note 1] It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October
October
1582. It was a refinement to the Julian calendar[3] involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe
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Kraków
Kraków
Kraków
(Polish: [ˈkrakuf] ( listen)), also Cracow or Krakow (UK: /ˈkrækaʊ/; US: /ˈkrɑː-/),[2][3] is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula
Vistula
River (Polish: Wisła) in the Lesser Poland
Poland
(Polish: Małopolska) region, the city dates back to the 7th century.[4] Kraków
Kraków
has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life and is one of Poland's most important economic hubs. It was the capital of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
from 1038 to 1569; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1596[5], the Free City of Kraków
Free City of Kraków
from 1815 to 1846; the Grand Duchy of Cracow
Grand Duchy of Cracow
from 1846 to 1918; and Kraków Voivodeship from the 14th century to 1998
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Sigismund III Of Poland
Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
(also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Polish: Zygmunt III Waza, Swedish: Sigismund, Lithuanian: Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599
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New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
(Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island
Manhattan Island
that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland. The factorij became a settlement outside Fort Amsterdam. The fort was situated on the strategic southern tip of the island of Manhattan and was meant to defend the fur trade operations of the Dutch West India Company in the North River (Hudson River). In 1624, it became a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and was designated as the capital of the province in 1625. By 1655, the population of New Netherland
New Netherland
had grown to 2,000 people, with 1,500 living in New Amsterdam
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