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17th Century
The 17TH CENTURY was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601
1601
, to December 31, 1700 , in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque
Baroque
cultural movement, the Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age
, the French Grand Siècle
Grand Siècle
(fr) dominated by Louis XIV
Louis XIV
, the Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
, and according to some historians, the General Crisis . The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years\' War , the Great Turkish War , and the Dutch-Portuguese War
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French Academy Of Sciences
The FRENCH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society , founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert , to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research . It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, and is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences . Currently headed by Sébastien Candel (President of the Academy), it is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France
Institut de France

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Tsar
TSAR /zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/ ( Old Church Slavonic : ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled TZAR, CSAR, or CZAR, is a title used to designate certain Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire , it is known as Tsarist autocracy , or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
word Caesar , which was intended to mean " Emperor
Emperor
" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope
Pope
or the Ecumenical Patriarch )—but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank. Occasionally, the word could be used to designate other secular supreme rulers
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Grand Siècle
Maria Theresa of Spain Françoise d\'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon Issue among others... Louis, Grand Dauphin
Louis, Grand Dauphin
FULL NAME French : Louis de Bourbon HOUSE Bourbon FATHER Louis XIII
Louis XIII
of France
France
MOTHER Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria
RELIGION Roman Catholicism SIGNATURELOUIS XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as LOUIS THE GREAT (Louis le Grand) or the SUN KING (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 5, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history
European history

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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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New York City
Bronx , Kings (Brooklyn) , New York
York
(Manhattan) , Queens
Queens
, Richmond (Staten Island) ------------------------- HISTORIC COLONIES New Netherland Province of New York SETTLED 1624 CONSOLIDATED 1898 NAMED FOR James, Duke of York
York
GOVERNMENT • TYPE Mayor–Council • BODY New York City Council
New York City Council
• MAYOR Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
(D ) AREA • TOTAL 468.484 sq mi (1,213.37 km2) • LAND 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) • WATER 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) • METRO 13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2) ELEVATION 33 ft (10 m) POPULATION (2010 ) • TOTAL 8,175,133 • ESTIMATE (2016) 8,537,673 • RANK 1st, U.S
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Shogun
A SHOGUN (将軍, shōgun, ( listen )) was the military dictator of Japan
Japan
during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions). In most of this period, the shoguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality. The Shogun
Shogun
held almost absolute power over territories through military means. Nevertheless, an unusual situation occurred in the Kamakura period (1199–1333) upon the death of the first shogun, whereby the Hōjō clan
Hōjō clan
's hereditary titles of shikken (1199-1256) and tokusō (1256–1333) monopolized the shogunate as dictatorial positions, collectively known as the Regent Rule (執権政治). The shogun during this 134-year period met the same fate as the Emperor and was reduced to a figurehead until a coup in 1333, when the Shogun was restored to power in the name of the Emperor
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René Descartes
RENé DESCARTES (/ˈdeɪˌkɑːrt/ ; French: ; Latinized : RENATUS CARTESIUS; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist . Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau , Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces . He is generally considered one of the most notable intellectual representatives of the Dutch Golden Age . Descartes's Meditations on First Philosophy
Meditations on First Philosophy
continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments
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Albrecht Von Wallenstein
LONG TURKISH WAR USKOK WAR THIRTY YEARS\\' WAR * Battle of White Mountain * Battle of Dessau Bridge * Siege of Stralsund
Stralsund
* Battle of Wolgast * Battle of Breitenfeld * Battle of the Alte Veste * Battle of Lützen AWARDS Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
ALBRECHT WENZEL EUSEBIUS VON WALLENSTEIN ( pronunciation (help ·info ); Czech : Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna; 24 September 1583 – 25 February 1634), also VON WALDSTEIN, was a Bohemian military leader and Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
Count palatine , who offered his services, an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men, during the Thirty Years\' War (1618–48), to emperor Ferdinand II . He became the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and was a major figure of the Thirty Years' War
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Tokugawa Ieyasu
Illegitimate: * Yūki Hideyasu * Toku-hime * Tokugawa Hidetada * Matsudaira Tadayoshi
Matsudaira Tadayoshi
* Takeda Nobuyoshi * Matsudaira Tadateru * Matsudaira Matsuchiyo * Matsudaira Senchiyo
Matsudaira Senchiyo
* Tokugawa Yoshinao * Tokugawa Yorinobu * Tokugawa Yorifusa * Furihime * Matsuhime * IchihimeAmong others... PARENTS Matsudaira Hirotada Odai-no-kata The Tokugawa clan
Tokugawa clan
crest TOKUGAWA IEYASU (徳川 家康, January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan
Japan
, which effectively ruled Japan
Japan
from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
in 1868
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Gregorian Calendar
The GREGORIAN CALENDAR is internationally the most widely used civil calendar . It is named after Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
, who introduced it in October
October
1582. The calendar was a refinement to the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
involving a 0.002% correction in the length of the year . The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox , which helps set the date for Easter
Easter
. Transition to the Gregorian calendar would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe
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Louis XIV
LOUIS XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as LOUIS THE GREAT (Louis le Grand) or the SUN KING (le Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history
European history
. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France
France
was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin . An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings , which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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1620s
The 1620S decade ran from January
January
1, 1620, to December 31, 1629
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European Colonization Of The Americas
The EUROPEAN COLONIZATION OF THE AMERICAS describes the history of the invasion, settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas
Americas
by various European powers. Starting in either the 10th or 11th century, when West Norse sailors explored and briefly settled on the shores of present-day Canada
Canada
, according to Icelandic Sagas
Icelandic Sagas
, violent conflicts with the indigenous population ultimately led to the Norse abandoning those settlements. Political map of the Americas
Americas
in 1794 European colonization began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by the Genoese explorer Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East
Far East
but inadvertently landed in what came to be known to Europeans as the " New World
New World
"
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1670s
The 1670S decade ran from January
January
1, 1670, to December 31, 1679
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