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1730 Seutter Map Of Turkey (Ottoman Empire), Persia And Arabia
Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije dʒumˈhuːɾijeti] (About this soundlisten)), is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, the part of Turkey in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles (collectively called the Turkish Straits). Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city while Ankara is the capital
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Turkey (bird)
The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas. Males of both turkey species have a distinctive fleshy wattle or protuberance that hangs from the top of the beak (called a snood). They are among the largest birds in their ranges
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Turkish War Of Independence
Decisive Turkish victory

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Presidential System
A presidential system is a democratic and republican government in which a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state, which is called president. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment. The title "president" has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States, prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government is elected to power through the legislative
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Constitution Of Turkey
The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law. It establishes the organization of the government and sets out the principles and rules of the state's conduct along with its responsibilities in regards to its citizens. The constitution also establishes the rights and responsibilities of the latter while setting the guidelines for the delegation and exercise of sovereignty that belongs to the Turkish people. The constitution was ratified on 7 November 1982. It replaced the earlier Constitution of 1961. The constitution was amended seventeen times, two of them through a referendum: 2007, 2010, one of them partly through referendum: 1987
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica, meaning “public affair”) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are attained, through democracy, oligarchy, autocracy, or a mix thereof, rather than being unalterably occupied. As such it has become the opposing form of government to a monarchy and has therefore no monarch as head of state. In the context of American constitutional law, the definition of republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body

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President Of Turkey
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey. In this capacity, the President represents the Republic of Turkey, and the unity of the Turkish nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Turkey and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The articles from 101 to 106 of the Constitution establish all the requirements, election, duties, and responsibilities for the office of the President. The office of the President of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. The President of Turkey is often informally referred to as the Cumhurbaşkanı, meaning 'President of the People'. The current office-holder is the 12th President, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan since August 28, 2014. For most of the time since 1950, the Presidency has been mostly a ceremonial office
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Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Emblem of the President of Turkey.png Gallery: Picture, Sound, Video Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (UK: /ˈɛərdəwæn/ AIR-də-wan, US: /-wɑːn/ -⁠wahn, Turkish: [ɾeˈdʒep tajˈjip ˈæɾdoan] (About this soundlisten); born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014. He previously served as Prime Minister of Turkey from 2003 to 2014 and as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998
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Grand National Assembly Of Turkey
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Turkish: Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the National Campaign
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Treaty Of Lausanne
The Treaty of Lausanne (French: Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923. It officially settled the conflict that had originally existed between the Ottoman Empire and the Allied French Republic, British Empire, Kingdom of Italy, Empire of Japan, Kingdom of Greece, and the Kingdom of Romania since the onset of World War I. The original text of the treaty is in French. It was the result of a second attempt at peace after the failed Treaty of Sèvres, which was signed by all previous parties, except the Kingdom of Greece, but later rejected by the Turkish national movement who fought against the previous terms and significant loss of territory. The Treaty of Lausanne ended the conflict and defined the borders of the modern Turkish Republic
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Politics Of Turkey
The politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and the President of Turkey is the head of state who holds a largely ceremonial role with substantial reserve powers. Turkey's political system is based on a separation of powers. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Its current constitution was adopted on 7 November 1982 after the Turkish constitutional referendum. A major reform was passed in Parliament in January 21, 2017 and approved by referendum the following April reinforcing the role of the president. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Turkey as "hybrid regime" in 2016.