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16th Century
The 16TH CENTURY begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600
1600
(depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582). The 1 6th century is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of the West occurred. During the 16th century, Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World
New World
became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas
Americas
with Asia
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Doctrine
DOCTRINE (from Latin : doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or belief system . The Greek analogue is the etymology of catechism . Often doctrine specifically suggests a body of religious principles as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily; doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense , or the principle of fair use , or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine . In some organizations, doctrine is simply defined as "that which is taught", in other words the basis for institutional teaching of its personnel internal ways of doing business
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Hyperborea
In Greek mythology
Greek mythology
the HYPERBOREANS ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι, pronounced ; Latin : Hyperborei) were mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind". The Greeks thought that Boreas , the god of the North Wind (one of the Anemoi
Anemoi
, or "Winds") lived in Thrace
Thrace
, and therefore Hyperborea
Hyperborea
indicates a region that lay far to the north of Thrace
Thrace
. This land was supposed to be perfect, with the sun shining twenty-four hours a day, which to modern ears suggests a possible location within the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
during the Midnight Sun
Midnight Sun
-time of year
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Richard E. Byrd
Rear Admiral RICHARD EVELYN BYRD, JR., USN (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was an American naval officer who specialized in feats of exploration. He was a recipient of the Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
, the highest honor for valor given by the United States, and was a pioneering American aviator, polar explorer, and organizer of polar logistics. Aircraft flights in which he served as a navigator and expedition leader crossed the Atlantic Ocean, a segment of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, and a segment of the Antarctic Plateau . Byrd claimed that his expeditions had been the first to reach both the North Pole
North Pole
and the South Pole
South Pole
by air. However, his claim to have reached the North Pole
North Pole
is disputed
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Zero-sum Game
In game theory and economic theory , a ZERO-SUM GAME is a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant's gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the utility of the other participants. If the total gains of the participants are added up and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero. Thus, cutting a cake , where taking a larger piece reduces the amount of cake available for others, is a zero-sum game if all participants value each unit of cake equally (see marginal utility ). In contrast, NON-ZERO-SUM describes a situation in which the interacting parties' aggregate gains and losses can be less than or more than zero. A zero-sum game is also called a strictly competitive game while non-zero-sum games can be either competitive or non-competitive. Zero-sum games are most often solved with the minimax theorem which is closely related to linear programming duality , or with Nash equilibrium
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World Map
A WORLD MAP is a map of most or all of the surface of the Earth
Earth
. World
World
maps form a distinctive category of maps due to the problem of projection . Maps by necessity distort the presentation of the earth's surface. These distortions reach extremes in a world map. The many ways of projecting the earth reflect diverse technical and aesthetic goals for world maps. World
World
maps are also distinct for the global knowledge required to construct them. A meaningful map of the world could not be constructed before the European Renaissance
Renaissance
because less than half of the earth's coastlines, let alone its interior regions, were known to any culture. New knowledge of the earth's surface has been accumulating ever since and continues to this day. Maps of the world generally focus either on political features or on physical features
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Amerigo Vespucci
AMERIGO VESPUCCI (Italian pronunciation: ; March 9, 1454 – February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer , financier , navigator and cartographer who first demonstrated that Brazil
Brazil
and the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern outskirts as initially conjectured from Columbus\' voyages , but instead constituted an entirely separate landmass hitherto unknown to people of the Old World . Colloquially referred to as the New World , this second super continent came to be termed " Americas ", deriving its name from Americus, the Latin
Latin
version of Vespucci's first name
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Luca Pacioli
FRA LUCA BARTOLOMEO DE PACIOLI (sometimes Paccioli or Paciolo; c. 1447–1517) was an Italian mathematician , Franciscan
Franciscan
friar , collaborator with Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
, and a seminal contributor to the field now known as accounting . He is referred to as "The Father of Accounting
Accounting
and Bookkeeping" in Europe and he was the first person to publish a work on the double-entry system of book-keeping in this continent. He was also called LUCA DI BORGO after his birthplace, Borgo Sansepolcro , Tuscany
Tuscany

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Americas
Largest metropolitan areas Largest cities List * São Paulo * Lima
Lima
* Mexico City
Mexico City
* New York City
New York City
* Bogotá * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
* Santiago
Santiago
* Los Angeles
Los Angeles
* Caracas * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
CIA political map of the Americas
Americas
in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection The AMERICAS (also collectively called AMERICA) encompass the totality of the continents of North and South America
South America
. Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World
New World

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Asia
Major Cities of Asia
Asia
List of cities in Asia List * Tokyo
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1520s
The 1520S decade ran from January 1, 1520, to December
December
31, 1529
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Imperialism
IMPERIALISM is an action that involves a country (usually an empire or a kingdom ) extending its power by the acquisition of territories . It may also include the exploitation of these territories, an action that is linked to colonialism . Colonialism is generally regarded as an expression of imperialism. It is different from New Imperialism
New Imperialism
, as the term imperialism is usually applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 15th and 19th centuries, as opposed to the expansion of Western Powers (and Japan
Japan
) during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, both are examples of imperialism. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and usage * 2 Colonialism vs
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Thirty Years' War
Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
* Protestant
Protestant
princes allowed to continue religious practices * Decline of the
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Michelangelo
MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI (/ˌmaɪkəlˈændʒəloʊ/ ; Italian: ; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art . Considered to be the greatest living artist during his lifetime, he has since been described as one of the greatest artists of all time. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man , along with his rival and fellow Florentine Medici
Medici
client, Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
. A number of Michelangelo's works of painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence
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David (Michelangelo)
DAVID (Italian pronunciation: ) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504 by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
. It is a 5.17-metre (17.0 ft) marble statue of a standing male nude. The statue represents the Biblical hero David
David
, a favoured subject in the art of Florence
Florence
. Originally commissioned as one of a series of statues of prophets to be positioned along the roofline of the east end of Florence
Florence
Cathedral , the statue was placed instead in a public square, outside the Palazzo Vecchio, the seat of civic government in Florence, in the Piazza della Signoria
Piazza della Signoria
where it was unveiled on September 8, 1504
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe
Europe
is bordered by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia
Asia
is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe
Europe
also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia
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