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1600s (decade)
The 1600S decade ran from January
January
1, 1600, to December 31, 1609
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Volcano
A VOLCANO is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object , such as Earth
Earth
, that allows hot lava , volcanic ash , and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging , and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge , such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America
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Huaynaputina
HUAYNAPUTINA (Spanish pronunciation: , Pronounced: /waɪnəpʊˈtiːnə/ W\\'EYE-nuh-puu-TEE-nuh ; from Quechua : Waynaputina, meaning "Young Volcano") is a stratovolcano in a volcanic upland in southern Peru
Peru
. The volcano does not have an identifiable mountain profile but instead is a large volcanic crater . It has produced high-potassium andesite and dacite . On 19 February 1600, it exploded catastrophically ( Volcanic Explosivity Index
Volcanic Explosivity Index
6), in the largest volcanic explosion in South America
South America
in historic times. The eruption continued with a series of events into March. An account of the event was included in Fray Antonio Vázquez de Espinosa 's Compendio y Descripción de las Indias, which was translated into English as Compendium and description of the West Indies in 1942
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Peru
Coordinates : 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76 Republic
Republic
of Peru * República del Perú (Spanish ) * Piruw Republika (Quechua ) * Piruw Suyu (Aymara ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" ANTHEM: Himno Nacional del Perú (Spanish) National Anthem of Peru NATIONAL SEAL : Gran Sello del Estado (Spanish) Great Seal of the State
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March 20
MARCH 20 is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years ) in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. There are 286 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Tuesday, Friday or Sunday (58 in 400 years each) than on Wednesday or Thursday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Monday or Saturday (56). Typically the March
March
equinox falls on this date, marking the vernal point in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and the autumnal point in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere

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Linköping Bloodbath
The LINKöPING BLOODBATH (Swedish: Linköpings blodbad) on 20 March 1600 was the public execution by beheading of five Swedish nobles in the aftermath of the War against Sigismund (1598–1599), which resulted in the de facto deposition of the Polish and Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
as king of Sweden . The five were advisors to Catholic Sigismund or political opponents of the latter's uncle and adversary, the Swedish regent Duke Charles . CONTENTS * 1 Detention, trial and execution * 2 Aftermath * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 4.1 References * 4.2 Bibliography DETENTION, TRIAL AND EXECUTIONKing Sigismund, eldest son to King John III , had inherited the crown from his father and been crowned the rightful king of Sweden after giving assurances that he would not act to aid the Catholic cause in Sweden during the mounting religious turmoil of the counter-reformation in the late 16th century
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February 19
FEBRUARY 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. There are 315 days remaining until the end of the year (316 in leap years ). This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Tuesday, Friday or Sunday (58 in 400 years each) than on Wednesday or Thursday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Monday or Saturday (56)
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Christian Heresy
When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faith as defined by one or more of the Christian churches . It should be distinguished from both apostasy and schism , apostasy being nearly always total abandonment of the Christian faith after it has been freely accepted, and schism being a formal and deliberate breach of Christian unity and an offence against charity without being based essentially on doctrine. In Western Christianity , heresy most commonly refers to those beliefs which were declared to be anathema by any of the ecumenical councils recognized by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. In the East , the term "heresy" is eclectic and can refer to anything at variance with Church tradition
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Sebald De Weert
SEBALD or SEBALT DE WEERT (May 2, 1567 – May 30 or June 1603) was a Dutch captain and vice-admiral of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(known in Dutch as Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC). He is most widely remembered for accurately plotting the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
in 1600
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Falkland Islands
The FALKLAND ISLANDS (/ˈfɔːlklənd/ ; Spanish : Islas Malvinas, pronounced ) are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
on the Patagonian Shelf . The principal islands are about 300 miles (483 kilometres) east of South America
South America
's southern Patagonian coast, at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles (12,000 square kilometres), comprises East Falkland
East Falkland
, West Falkland and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory , the Falklands have internal self-governance , and the United Kingdom takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The islands' capital is Stanley on East Falkland. Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times, the islands have had French, British, Spanish, and Argentine settlements
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February 17
FEBRUARY 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. There are 317 days remaining until the end of the year (318 in leap years ). This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Wednesday, Friday or Sunday (58 in 400 years each) than on Monday or Tuesday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Thursday or Saturday (56)
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Giordano Bruno
GIORDANO BRUNO (/dʒɔːrˈdɑːnoʊ ˈbruːnoʊ/ ; Italian: ; Latin : Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born FILIPPO BRUNO, was an Italian Dominican friar , philosopher , mathematician , poet , and cosmological theorist. He is known for his cosmological theories, which conceptually extended the then-novel Copernican model. He proposed that the stars were just distant suns surrounded by their own exoplanets and raised the possibility that these planets could even foster life of their own (a philosophical position known as cosmic pluralism ). He also insisted that the universe is in fact infinite and could have no celestial body at its "center"
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Decapitation
DECAPITATION is the complete separation of the head from the body. Such an injury is fatal to humans and usually fatal to most animals, since it deprives all other organs of the involuntary functions that are needed for the body to function, while the brain is deprived of oxygenated blood. The term BEHEADING refers to the act of deliberately decapitating a person, either as a means of murder or execution ; it may be accomplished with an axe, sword, knife, or by mechanical means such as a guillotine . An executioner who carries out executions by beheading is called a headsman . Accidental decapitation can be the result of an explosion, car or industrial accident, improperly administered execution by hanging or other violent injury. Suicide
Suicide
by decapitation is rare but not unknown
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Polish–Swedish Union
The POLISH–SWEDISH UNION was a short-lived personal union between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
, and the Kingdom of Sweden
Sweden
, when Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
, King of Poland
King of Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
, was crowned King of Sweden
Sweden
in 1592. In 1599, after a civil war, he lost this crown and returned to Warsaw
Warsaw
. CONTENTS * 1 Prelude * 2 Union * 3 Aftermath * 4 Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* 5 See also * 6 References PRELUDEAfter the death of John III of Sweden
Sweden
, his son Sigismund became heir to the throne of Sweden. Sigismund at that time was already the elected King of Poland
King of Poland
(since 1587)
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Spanish Empire
The SPANISH EMPIRE (Spanish : Imperio español) was one of the largest empires in history. It reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs , through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
in the 18th century, when it was the largest empire in the world. The Spanish Empire
Empire
became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets . The Spanish Empire
Empire
originated during the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
after the voyages of