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15th Century
The 1 5th century
5th century
was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500. In Europe, the 1 5th century
5th century
is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. In religious history, the Roman Papacy
Papacy
was split in two parts in Europe
Europe
for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance
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Crown Of Castile
The Crown of Castile[nb 1] was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees
Nueva Planta decrees
by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries
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New World
The New World
World
is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas
Americas
(including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda). The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas
Americas
in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa, Europe, and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a
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Cape Of Good Hope
The Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
(Afrikaans: Kaap die Goeie Hoop [ˌkɑːp di ˌχujə ˈɦʊəp], Dutch: Kaap de Goede Hoop [ˌkaːb də ˌɣudə ˈɦoːp] ( listen),[1] Portuguese: Cabo da Boa Esperança [ˈkabu dɐ ˈboɐ ʃpɨˈɾɐ̃sɐ]) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. A common misconception is that the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
is the southern tip of Africa
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Council Of Constance
The Council of Constance
Council of Constance
is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance. The council ended the Western Schism, by deposing or accepting the resignation of the remaining papal claimants and electing Pope
Pope
Martin V. The council also condemned Jan Hus
Jan Hus
as a heretic and facilitated his execution by the civil authority. It also ruled on issues of national sovereignty, the rights of pagans, and just war in response to a conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Order of the Teutonic Knights
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Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (/joʊˈhɑːnɪs ˈɡuːtənˌbɜːrɡ, -ˈhænɪs-/ yoh-HA(H)N-iss GOO-tən-burg;[1] c. 1400[2] – February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press. His introduction of mechanical movable type printing to Europe started the Printing
Printing
Revolution and is regarded as a milestone of the second millennium, ushering in the modern period of human history.[3] It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.[4] Gutenberg in 1439 was the first European to use movable type
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Americas
Largest metropolitan areas Largest citiesList1.São Paulo 2.Lima 3. Mexico
Mexico
City 4.New York City 5.Bogotá 6.Rio de Janeiro 7.Santiago 8.Los Angeles 9.Caracas 10.Buenos AiresCIA political map of the Americas
Americas
in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projectionThe Americas
Americas
(also collectively called America)[5][6][7] comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America.[8][9][10] Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere[11][12][13][14][15][16] and comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas
Americas
is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St
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Century
A century (from the Latin
Latin
centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.[1]) is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages. A centenary is a hundredth anniversary, or a celebration of this, typically the remembrance of an event which took place a hundred years earlier.Contents1 Start and end in the Gregorian calendar1.1 Viewpoint 1: Strict usage 1.2 Viewpoint 2: General usage2 1st century BC and AD 3 Dating units in other calendar systems 4 Centuries in astronomical year numbering 5 Alternative naming systems 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyStart and end in the Gregorian calendar[edit] Although a century can mean any arbitrary period of 100 years, there are two viewpoints on the nature of standard centuries
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1490s
The 1490s decade ran from January 1, 1490, to December 31, 1499.Millennium: 2nd millenniumCenturies:14th century 15th century 16th centuryDecades:1470s 1480s 1490s 1500s 1510sYears:1490 1491 1492 1493 14941495 1496 1497 1498 1499Categories:Births Deaths By country By topicEstablishments DisestablishmentsContents1 Events1.1 14901.1.1 January–December 1.1.2 Date unknown1.2 14911.2.1 January–December 1.2.2 Date unknown1.3 14921.3.1 January–December 1.3.2 Date unknown1.4 14931.4.1 January–December 1.4.2 Unknown date1.5 14941.5.1 January–December 1.5.2 Date unknown1.6 14951.6.1 January–December 1.6.2 Date unknown1.7 14961.7.1 January–Decembe
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Fall Of Constantinople
Ottomans Land forces: [e] 50,000–80,000[6]:101 [7]:49[8]:52[9]:618[10][page needed][11][page needed][f]100,000[12]:755–160,000[13][page needed][14][page needed]–200,000[3][page needed]70 cannons[15]:139–14014 large and 56 small caliber)[16]:179Naval forces:70 ships,[10]:4420 galleys[17] 90 – 126 ships [18]Byzantines Land forces:7,000–10,000[5]:85[12]:755[19]:343[12]:755[20]:46[21][page needed]-12,000,[18] 600 Ottoman defectors[22]Naval forces:26 ships[10]:45[g]Casualties and lossesUnknown but heavy[24][4][page needed]4,000 killed in total (including combatants and civilians)[10]:37–8 30,000 enslaved or deported[24]^ More specifically, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty ^ The Venetians decided to make a peace treaty with the Ottomans in September 1451, because they were on good terms already with the Ottomans and they did not want to ruin a relationship
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Hussite
words of Jan Hus
Jan Hus
& motto of the Czech RepublicPart of a series onProtestantismTopicsReformation Great Awakenings History Culture Demographics Persecution CriticismMajor branchesAdventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptist churches Calvinism Lutheranism Methodism PentecostalismMinor branchesHussitism Waldensianism Plymouth Brethren Holiness movement Quakerism Multiple othersInterdenominational movementsEvangelicalism Charismatic movement Neo-charismatic movementOther developmentsArminianism Pietism Puritanism Neo-orthodoxy Paleo-orthodoxy Christian fund
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1500
Year 1500
1500
(MD) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The year was seen as being especially important by many Christians in Europe, who thought it would bring the beginning of the end of the world
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Julian Calendar
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.[1] It took effect on 1 January
January
45 BC (AUC 709), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
gains against the mean tropical year at the rate of one day in 128 years. For the Gregorian calendar, the figure is one day in 3,030 years.[2] The difference in the average length of the year between Julian (365.25 days) and Gregorian (365.2425 days) is 0.002%. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months, as listed in the table below. A leap day is added to February every four years
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Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus[a] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/[3] c. 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Born in the Republic of Genoa,[4] under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
of Spain
Spain
he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the permanent European colonization of the New World. At a time when European kingdoms were beginning to establish new trade routes and colonies, motivated by imperialism and economic competition, Columbus proposed to reach the East Indies
East Indies
(South and Southeast Asia) by sailing westward. This eventually received the support of the Spanish Crown, which saw a chance to enter the spice trade with Asia
Asia
through this new route
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