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1580s
The 1580s decade ran from January
January
1, 1580, to December 31, 1589
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Philippine Dynasty
The PHILIPPINE DYNASTY, also known as the HOUSE OF HABSBURG in Portugal , was the third royal house of Portugal. It was named after the three Spanish kings who ruled Portugal between 1581 and 1640 in a dynastic union of the two crowns. The three kings, all named Philip (Spanish : Felipe; Portuguese : Filipe, Portuguese pronunciation: ), were from the House of Habsburg. The history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1580 to the House of Braganza monarchs is a period of transition. The Portuguese Empire spice trade was near its height at the start of this period
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Portuguese Empire
The PORTUGUESE EMPIRE (Portuguese : Império Português), also known as the PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS (Ultramar Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance. It existed for almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta
Ceuta
in 1415 to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China
China
in 1999. The first era of the Portuguese empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
. Initiated by the Kingdom of Portugal , it would eventually expand across the globe. Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation, cartography and maritime technology such as the caravel , in order that they might find a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice trade
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1640
1640
1640
(MDCXL ) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter ED) of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
, the 1640th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 640th year of the 2nd millennium
2nd millennium
, the 40th year of the 17th century
17th century
, and the 1st year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1640, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923
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April 6
APRIL 6 is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years ) in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. There are 269 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Monday, Wednesday or Friday (58 in 400 years each) than on Saturday or Sunday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Tuesday or Thursday (56)
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1580 Dover Straits Earthquake
Though severe earthquakes in the north of France and Britain are rare, the 1580 DOVER STRAITS EARTHQUAKE appears to have been one of the largest in the recorded history of England, Flanders or northern France. It started hitting London at around six o'clock toward evening in British time on the sixth of April, 1580, being Wednesday in Easter week. CONTENTS * 1 Location and magnitude * 2 Records * 3 Impact * 4 Other earthquakes in the Dover Straits * 5 See also * 6 Notes and references * 7 External links LOCATION AND MAGNITUDEA study undertaken during the design of the Channel Tunnel estimated the magnitude of the 1580 quake at 5.3–5.9ML and its focal depth at 20–30 km, in the lower crust . Being relatively deep, the quake was felt over a large area and it is not certain where the epicentre was located. The Channel Tunnel study proposed three possible locations, two south of Calais and one offshore
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Personal Union
A PERSONAL UNION is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union , by contrast, will involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state , a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch. Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant , and their child inherits the crown of both countries) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings)
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Philip II Of Spain
PHILIP II OF SPAIN (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal
King of Portugal
(1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58). He was also Duke of Milan . From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands
Netherlands
. Known in Spain as "Felipe el Prudente" ('"Philip the Prudent'"), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines
Philippines
. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age
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Michel De Montaigne
MICHEL EYQUEM DE MONTAIGNE, LORD OF MONTAIGNE (/mɒnˈteɪn/ ; French: ; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance
French Renaissance
, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre . His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes and autobiography with serious intellectual insight; his massive volume Essais contains some of the most influential essays ever written
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Essays (Montaigne)
The ESSAYS (French : Essais, pronounced ) of Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne
are contained in three books and 107 chapters of varying length. Montaigne's stated design in writing, publishing and revising the Essays over the period from approximately 1570 to 1592 was to record "some traits of my character and of my humours." The Essays were first published in 1580 and cover a wide range of topics. CONTENTS * 1 Style * 2 Content * 3 Chronology * 4 The Essays * 5 English translations * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 External links STYLEMontaigne wrote in a rather crafted rhetoric designed to intrigue and involve the reader, sometimes appearing to move in a stream-of-thought from topic to topic and at other times employing a structured style which gives more emphasis to the didactic nature of his work
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March 25
MARCH 25 is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years ) in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. There are 281 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Wednesday, Friday or Sunday (58 in 400 years each) than on Monday or Tuesday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Thursday or Saturday (56)
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Iberian Union
The IBERIAN UNION was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown
Spanish Crown
between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula , as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II , Philip III and Philip IV of Spain
Spain
. The union began as a result of the Portuguese crisis of succession and the ensuing War of the Portuguese Succession and lasted 60 years, until the Portuguese Restoration War in which the House of Braganza was established as Portugal's new ruling dynasty. The Habsburg king was the only element of connection between the multiple kingdoms and territories, who ruled by six separate government councils of Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Italy, Flanders and the Indies. The governments, institutions, and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other
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June
JUNE is the sixth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the second month to have the length of 30 days . June contains the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
, the day with the most daylight hours, and the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere , the day with the fewest daylight hours (excluding polar regions in both cases). June
June
in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the seasonal equivalent to December in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
and vice versa. In the Northern hemisphere, the beginning of the traditional astronomical summer is 21 June
June
(meteorological summer begins on 1 June). In the Southern hemisphere, meteorological winter begins on 1 June
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707) MONARCH • 927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first) • 1702–1707 Anne (last) LEGISLATURE Parliament • Upper house House of Lords
House of Lords
• Lower house House of Commons
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July 12
JULY 12 is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years ) in the Gregorian calendar . There are 172 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Tuesday, Thursday or Sunday (58 in 400 years each) than on Friday or Saturday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Monday or Wednesday (56). CONTENTS * 1 Events * 2 Births * 3 Deaths * 4 Holidays and observances * 5 External links EVENTS * AD 70 – The armies of Titus attack the walls of Jerusalem after six months of battle
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Lutheran
LUTHERANISM is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar , ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire . Beginning with the Ninety-Five Theses , first published in 1517, Luther's writings were disseminated internationally, spreading the early ideas of the Reformation beyond the influence and control of the Roman Curia and the Holy Roman Emperor
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