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1580s
The 1580s decade ran from January
January
1, 1580, to December
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Millennium
A millennium (plural millennia or millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years,[1] also called kiloyears. It derives from the Latin
Latin
mille, thousand, and annus, year. It is often, but not always, related to a particular dating system. Sometimes, it is used specifically for periods of a thousand years that begin at the starting point (initial reference point) of the calendar in consideration (typically the year "1"), or in later years that are whole number multiples of a thousand years after it
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June
June
June
is the sixth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the second of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the third of five months to have a length of less than 31 days. June contains the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, the day with the most daylight hours, and the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, the day with the fewest daylight hours (excluding polar regions in both cases). June
June
in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the seasonal equivalent to December
December
in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
and vice versa. In the Northern hemisphere, the beginning of the traditional astronomical summer is 21 June
June
(meteorological summer begins on 1 June)
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Essays (Montaigne)
The Essays (French: Essais, pronounced [esɛ]) of Michel de Montaigne are contained in three books and 107 chapters of varying length. Montaigne's stated design in writing, publishing and revising the Essays over the period from approximately 1570 to 1592 was to record "some traits of my character and of my humours." The Essays were first published in 1580 and cover a wide range of topics.[1]Contents1 Style 2 Content 3 Chronology 4 The Essays 5 English translations 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksStyle[edit] Montaigne wrote in a rather crafted rhetoric designed to intrigue and involve the reader, sometimes appearing to move in a stream-of-thought from topic to topic and at other times employing a structured style that gives more emphasis to the didactic nature of his work. His arguments are often supported with quotations from Ancient Greek, Latin and Italian texts such as De rerum natura
De rerum natura
by Lucretius[2] and the works of Plutarch
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March 25
March
March
25 is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 281 days remaining until the end of the year
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Iberian Union
The Iberian Union
Iberian Union
was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal
Crown of Portugal
and the Spanish Crown
Spanish Crown
between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain. The union began as a result of the Portuguese crisis of succession and the ensuing War of the Portuguese Succession
War of the Portuguese Succession
and lasted 60 years,[1][2] until the Portuguese Restoration War in which the House of Braganza
House of Braganza
was established as Portugal's new ruling dynasty. The Habsburg king was the only element of connection between the multiple kingdoms and territories, who ruled by six separate government councils of Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Italy, Flanders and the Indies
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Philip II Of Spain
Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain[a] (1556–98), King of Portugal
King of Portugal
(1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I),[1] King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England
King of England
and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I
Queen Mary I
from 1554–58).[2] He was also Duke of Milan.[3] From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known in Spain as "Felipe el Prudente" ('"Philip the Prudent'"), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age
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Personal Union
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.[1] A real union, by contrast, will involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.[2] Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries; the King
King
of one country inherits the crown of another country) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings)
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Portuguese Empire
The Portuguese Empire
Empire
(Portuguese: Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire
Empire
(Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance. It existed for almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta
Ceuta
in 1415 to the handover of Portuguese Macau
Portuguese Macau
to China
China
in 1999. The first era of the Portuguese empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Initiated by the Kingdom of Portugal, it would eventually expand across the globe
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Philippine Dynasty
The Philippine Dynasty, also known as the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
in Portugal, was the third royal house of Portugal. It was named after the three Spanish kings who ruled Portugal between 1581 and 1640 in a dynastic union of the two crowns. The three kings, all named Philip (Spanish: Felipe; Portuguese: Filipe, Portuguese pronunciation: [fɨˈlip(ɨ)]), were from the House of Habsburg. The history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1580 to the House of Braganza monarchs is a period of transition. The Portuguese Empire spice trade was near its height at the start of this period
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1640
1640
1640
was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1640th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 640th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1640s decade
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April 6
April
April
6 is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 269 days remaining until the end of the year
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1580 Dover Straits Earthquake
Though severe earthquakes in the north of France and Britain are rare,[2] the 1580 Dover Straits earthquake appears to have been one of the largest in the recorded history of England, Flanders or northern France. It started hitting London at around six o'clock toward evening in British time on the sixth of April, 1580, being Wednesday in Easter week.[3]Contents1 Location and magnitude 2 Records 3 Impact 4 Other earthquakes in the Dover Straits 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 External linksLocation and magnitude[edit] A study undertaken during the design of the Channel Tunnel estimated the magnitude of the 1580 quake at 5.3–5.9 ML and its focal depth at 20–30 km, in the lower crust.[4] Being relatively deep, the quake was felt over a large area and it is not certain where the epicentre was located. The Channel Tunnel study proposed three possible locations, two south of Calais and one offshore
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707)Monarch •  927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first)[a] •  1702–1707 Anne (last)[b]Legislature Parliament •  Upper house House of Lords •  Lower house House of CommonsHistory •  Unification 10th century •  Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066 •  Conquered Wales 1277–1283 •  Incorporated Wales 1535–1542 •  Union of the Crowns 24 March 1603 •  Glorious Revolution 11 December 1688 
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March 1
March
March
1 is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 305 days remaining until the end of the year
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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