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1539
Year 1539
1539
(MDXXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events[edit] January–June[edit] January
January
– Toungoo–Hanthawaddy War – Battle of Naungyo, Burma: The Toungoos decisively defeat the Hanthawaddys. January
January
12 – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
(and Charles I of Spain) and Francis I of France
Francis I of France
sign the Treaty of Toledo, agreeing to make no further alliances with England
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Millennium
A millennium (plural millennia or millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years,[1] also called kiloyears. It derives from the Latin
Latin
mille, thousand, and annus, year. It is often, but not always, related to a particular dating system. Sometimes, it is used specifically for periods of a thousand years that begin at the starting point (initial reference point) of the calendar in consideration (typically the year "1"), or in later years that are whole number multiples of a thousand years after it
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Buddhist Calendar
The Buddhist calendar
Buddhist calendar
is a set of lunisolar calendars primarily used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar
Myanmar
and Thailand
Thailand
as well as in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore
Singapore
for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they also have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era
Buddhist Era
is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar. The Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are largely based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year
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Calendar Era
A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. For example, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
numbers its years in the Western Christian era
Christian era
(the Coptic Orthodox and Ethiopian Orthodox churches have their own Christian eras). The instant, date, or year from which time is marked is called the epoch of the era. There are many different calendar eras such as Saka
Saka
Era. In antiquity, regnal years were counted from the accession of a monarch. This makes the Chronology of the ancient Near East
Chronology of the ancient Near East
very difficult to reconstruct, based on disparate and scattered king lists, such as the Sumerian King List
Sumerian King List
and the Babylonian Canon of Kings
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Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][Note 1] It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October
October
1582. It was a refinement to the Julian calendar[3] involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe
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Ab Urbe Condita
Ab urbe condita
Ab urbe condita
(Classical orthography: ABVRBECONDITÁ; Latin pronunciation: [ab ˈʊrbɛ ˈkɔndɪtaː]; related to anno urbis conditae; A. U. C., AUC, a.u.c.; also "anno urbis", short a.u.[1]) is a Latin
Latin
phrase meaning "from the founding of the City (of Rome)",[2] traditionally dated to 753 BC. AUC is a year-numbering system used by some ancient Roman historians to identify particular Roman years. Renaissance editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the false impression that the Romans usually numbered their years using the AUC system. The dominant method of identifying Roman years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held office that year
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Armenian Calendar
The Armenian calendar uses the calendar era of AD 552, reflecting the separation of the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
from the Chalcedonian Churches by the Monophysite schism. The calendar traditionally used in medieval Armenia was based on an invariant year length of 365 days. As a result, the correspondence between it and both the solar year and the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
once in 1,461 calendar years (see Sothic cycle). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian 2010/2011) completed the first full cycle; Armenian year 1 began on 11 July 552 of the Julian calendar, and Armenian year 1462 began on 24 July 2012 of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(corresponding to Julian 11 July)
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Assyrian Calendar
The Assyrian calendar is a lunar calendar which begins in the year 4750 BC, begun by the internal date of the foundation of Assur. [1][2] The year begins with the first sight of Spring.[clarification needed] The Assyrian new year is still celebrated every year with festivals and gatherings. As of April 2018 AD, it is the 6768th year of the Assyrian calendar, and this calendar is used among many Assyrian communities. It begins 4,750 years before the Gregorian calendar
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Balinese Saka Calendar
The Balinese saka calendar
Balinese saka calendar
is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the moon, and is approximately the same length as the Gregorian year.Contents1 Months 2 Use 3 Notable days 4 References4.1 NotesMonths[edit]Information about the Saka calendar on a Balinese wall calendarBased on a lunar calendar, the saka year comprises twelve months, or sasih, of 30 days each. However, because the lunar cycle is slightly shorter than 30 days, and the lunar year has a length of 354 or 355 days, the calendar is adjusted to prevent it losing synchronization with the lunar or solar cycles. The months are adjusted by allocating two lunar days to one solar day every 9 weeks. This day is called ngunalatri, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "minus one night"
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Bengali Calendar
The Bengali Calendar
Calendar
or Bangla Calendar
Calendar
(বঙ্গাব্দ Bônggabdô or Banggabda) is a solar calendar used in the region of Bengal. A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and an earlier version of the calendar is followed in the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura
Tripura
and Assam. The New Year
New Year
in the Bengali calendar
Bengali calendar
is known as Pohela Boishakh. The Bengali era is called Bengali Sambat (BS)[1] or the Bengali year (বাংলা সন Bangla Sôn, বাংলা সাল Bangla sal, or Bangabda)[2] has a zero year that starts in 593/594 CE
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Berber Calendar
The Berber calendar
Berber calendar
is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is also known as the fellaḥi (ﻓﻼّﺣﻲ "rustic" or ﻋﺠﻤﻲ ʿajamī "foreign" calendar). The calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. The Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar is considered by some as ill-adapted for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles.[1] The current Berber calendar
Berber calendar
is a legacy of the Roman province
Roman province
of Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis
and the Roman province
Roman province
of Africa, as it is a surviving form of the Julian calendar. The latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin
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Regnal Years Of English Monarchs
The following is a list of the official regnal years of the monarchs of the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
(subsequently Great Britain
Great Britain
and the United Kingdom), from 1066 to the present day. The regnal calendar ("nth year of the reign of King X", etc.) is used in many official British government and legal documents of historical interest, notably parliamentary statutes.Contents1 Overview 2 Regnal calendar table 3 Footnotes 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further readingOverview[edit] For centuries, English official public documents have been dated by the regnal years of the ruling monarch. Traditionally, parliamentary statutes are referenced by regnal year, e.g
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Burmese Calendar
The Burmese calendar (Burmese: မြန်မာသက္ကရာဇ်, pronounced [mjəmà θɛʔkəɹɪʔ], or ကောဇာသက္ကရာဇ်, [kɔ́zà θɛʔkəɹɪʔ]; Burmese Era (BE) or Myanmar
Myanmar
Era (ME)) is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on sidereal years. The calendar is largely based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, though unlike the Indian systems, it employs a version of the Metonic cycle. The calendar therefore has to reconcile the sidereal years of the Hindu calendar
Hindu calendar
with the Metonic cycle's near tropical years by adding intercalary months and days at irregular intervals. The calendar has been used continuously in various Burmese states since its purported launch in 640 CE in the Sri Ksetra Kingdom, also called the Pyu era
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2nd Millennium
The second millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001 of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and ended on December 31, 2000 of the Gregorian calendar.[1] It was the second period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini
Anno Domini
or Common Era. It is distinct from the millennium known as the 1000s which began on January 1, 1000 and ended on December 31, 1999. It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire, the Renaissance, the Baroque era, the early Modern Age, the age of Enlightenment, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 19th and 20th century
20th century
with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations
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Byzantine Calendar
The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or " Era of the World" (Ancient Greek: Ἔτη Γενέσεως Κόσμου κατὰ Ῥωμαίους,[1] also Ἔτος Κτίσεως Κόσμου or Ἔτος Κόσμου, abbreviated as ε.Κ.), was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate. It was also the official calendar of the Byzantine Empire[note 1] from 988 to 1453, and of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and Russia from c. 988 to 1700. The calendar was based on the Julian calendar, except that the year started on 1 September and the year number used an Anno Mundi
Anno Mundi
epoch derived from the Septuagint
Septuagint
version of the Bible
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Chinese Sexagenary Cycle
The sexagenary cycle, also known as the Stems-and-Branches or ganzhi, is a cycle of sixty terms used for reckoning time in China and the East Asian cultural sphere.[1] It appears as a means of recording days in the first Chinese written texts, the Shang oracle bones of the late second millennium BC. Its use to record years began around the middle of the 3rd century BC.[2] The cycle and its variations have been an important part of the traditional calendrical systems in Chinese-influenced Asian states and territories, particularly those of Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, with the old Chinese system still in use in Taiwan. This traditional method of numbering days and years no longer has any significant role in modern Chinese time keeping or the official calendar. However, the sexagenary cycle is still used in names of many historical events, such as the Chinese Xinhai Revolution, the Japanese Boshin War, and the Korean Imjin War
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