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13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
Year 4 (5 October 1795 in the French Republican Calendar) is the name given to a battle between the French Revolutionary troops and Royalist forces in the streets of Paris. This battle was part of the establishing of a new form of government, the so-called Directory, and it was a major factor in the rapid advancement of Republican General Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte's career.Contents1 Background 2 Vendémiaire 3 A whiff of grapeshot 4 Aftermath 5 In film 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksBackground[edit] The social reforms of the French Revolution
French Revolution
had been well received by the majority of the populace of France, but the Revolution's strongly anti-Catholic stance had created anti-republican sympathies in many Roman Catholics
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The French Revolution
The French Revolution
Revolution
(French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799. It was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond
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Assignats
An assignat [asiɲa] was a type of a monetary instrument used during the time of the French Revolution, and the French Revolutionary Wars.Contents1 France 2 Italy 3 Russia 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksFrance[edit] Assignat
Assignat
from the 1792 issue: 400 livresAssignats were paper money issued by the National Assembly in France from 1789 to 1796, during the French Revolution, to address imminent bankruptcy. They were backed by the value of properties formerly held by the Catholic Church, which were confiscated, on the motion of Mirabeau, by the Assembly on 2 November 1789, and the crown lands, which had been taken over by the nation on 7 October. The initial issue was for 400 million francs, at an interest rate of 5%.[1] The assignats were immediately a source of political controversy
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Battle Of Savenay
The Battle of Savenay
Savenay
took place on 23 December 1793, and marks the end of the Virée de Galerne
Virée de Galerne
operational phase of the first war in the Vendée
Vendée
after the French Revolution. A Republican force of approximately 18,000 decisively defeated the Armée Catholique et Royale force of 6,000 at Savenay.Contents1 Prelude 2 The eve of the battle 3 The battle 4 The flight and massacres 5 Consequences 6 In popular culture 7 References 8 SourcesPrelude[edit] Main article: Virée de Galerne After a crushing defeat at the battle of Le Mans on 12 December 1793, a few thousand Vendéens fled to Laval and then to Ancenis, hoping to cross the Loire
Loire
back into Vendée. Without boats, crossing the river was impossible
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Thermidorian Reaction
Opposition victory:Fall of Montagnards Execution of the extremists End of the "Reign of Terror"BelligerentsThermidorians Supported by:National Convention National Guard Committee of General SecurityJacobins Supported by:Committee of Public Safety National Guard (dissident) Sans-culottesCommanders and leadersPaul Barras Jean-Lambert Tallien Joseph Fouché Pierre-Louis Bentabole Charles-André Merda Maximilien Robespierre  Louis Antoine de Saint-Just  François Hanriot  Augustin Robespierre StrengthUnknown National Guards c
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National Convention
The National Convention
National Convention
(French: Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 (4 Brumaire IV under the Convention's adopted calendar). The Convention came about when the Legislative Assembly, which had found it impossible to work with the king, decreed the provisional suspension of King Louis XVI
King Louis XVI
and the convocation of a National Convention to draw up a new constitution with no monarchy
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Guémené-sur-Scorff
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Guémené-sur- Scorff
Scorff
(Breton: Ar Gemene) is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in north-western France. It is located 20 km (12 mi) west of Pontivy.Contents1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 Sights 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksGeography[edit] Guémené is situated on the Scorff
Scorff
river and is unusual in that it is a commune without any outlying land and it is bounded by the town boundaries only. Demographics[edit] Inhabitants of Guémené-sur- Scorff
Scorff
are called Guémenois. Sights[edit] The town is surrounded by wooded hillsides and was the seat of the Dukes of Rohan from the 13th to 15th century
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Louis Lazare Hoche
Louis Lazare Hoche
Lazare Hoche
(24 June 1768 – 19 September 1797) was a French soldier who rose to be general of the Revolutionary army. He is best known for his victory over Royalist forces in Brittany. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 3. Richard Holmes says he was, "quick-thinking, stern, and ruthless...a general of real talent whose early death was a loss to France." [1]Contents1 Early life 2 Revolutionary army career 3 Arrest 4 War in the Vendée 5 Ireland and Austria 6 Later career and death 7 Memorials 8 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Born of poor parents near Versailles, he enlisted at sixteen as a private soldier in the Gardes Françaises
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Jean-Nicolas Stofflet
War in the VendéeBattle of Thouars Battle of Nantes Battle of Cholet Virée de Galerne Battle of Entrames Battle of Fougères Battle of Granville Battle of Dol Siege of AngersAwards Order of Saint Louis, Grand Cross Jean-Nicolas Stofflet
Jean-Nicolas Stofflet
(3 February 1751 – 25 February 1796) was a French leader of the Revolt in the Vendée
Revolt in the Vendée
against the First French Republic. Born in Bathelémont-lès-Bauzemont
Bathelémont-lès-Bauzemont
(Meurthe-et-Moselle), the son of a miller, he was for long a private in the Swiss Guard, and afterwards gamekeeper to the comte de Colbert-Maulévrier, he joined the Vendéans when they rose against the Revolution to defend Roman Catholicism and Royalist principles
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Etienne-Alexandre Bernier
Étienne-Alexandre Bernier or Abbé
Abbé
Bernier (31 October 1762 – 1 October 1806) was a French religious figure and Royalist politician during the French Revolution. Born in Daon, Mayenne, Bernier was a professor of theology at the University of Angers
University of Angers
and a vicar in the city of Angers. He refused to take the Civil Oath demanded by the Revolution, and, in 1793, joined the Revolt in the Vendée, and, for a while, was its leader alongside Jean-Nicolas Stofflet. He negotiated the peace with French Revolutionary Army General Lazare Hoche, and worked to have the Vendée
Vendée
pacified. Under Napoleon Bonaparte, Bernier was assigned to negotiate the unification of nation and church in France with the Papal delegation of Pius VII
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Émigré Armies Of The French Revolutionary Wars
House of BourbonAllies: Austria Great Britain[a] United Kingdom[b] Holy Roman Empire Netherlands Order of Malta Prussia Russia SpainSize 20,000Motto(s) Montjoie Saint Denis! ("Mountjoy Saint Denis!")Colors WhiteEngagementsRevolutionary Wars Napoleonic WarsCommandersCommander Louis JosephInsigniaRoyal BannerThe Armée des Émigrés (English: Army of the Émigrés), were counter-revolutionary armies raised outside France by and out of Royalist Émigrés, with the aim of overthrowing the French Revolution, reconquering France and restoring the monarchy. These were aided by royalist armies within France itself, such as the Chouans, and by allied countries such as Great Britain
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Musket
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.[1] By the mid-16th century, this type of musket went out of use as heavy armor declined, but as the matchlock became standard, the term musket continued as the name given for any long gun with a flintlock, and then its successors, all the way through the mid 1800s.[2] This style of musket was retired in the 19th century when rifled muskets (simply called rifles in modern terminology) became common as a result of cartridged breech-loading firearms introduced by Casimir Lefaucheux
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Cannon
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon
Cannon
vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed
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Joseph De Puisaye
Joseph-Geneviève, comte de Puisaye (6 March 1755 – 13 September 1827) was a minor French nobleman who fought as a counter-revolutionary during the French Revolution, leading two unsuccessful invasions from England. He later led a group of French royalists to settle in Upper Canada, but returned to England
England
after a few years, when that effort proved largely unsuccessful. He remained in England
England
until his death in 1827.Contents1 Before the revolution 2 French Revolution2.1 A revolutionary becomes a counter-revolutionary 2.2 First French invasion 2.3 Second French invasion3 Move to Upper Canada 4 Bibliography 5 ReferencesBefore the revolution[edit] De Puisaye was born in Mortagne-au-Perche, the fourth son of a French aristocratic family.[1][2] His family intended for him to join a seminary, and sent him to the Collège de Laval at age nine, then the Collège de Sées and the Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice in Paris
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Committee Of Public Safety
The Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
(French: Comité de salut public)—created in April 1793 by the National Convention
National Convention
and then restructured in July 1793—formed the de facto executive government in France
France
during the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(1793–94), a stage of the French Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence (established in January 1793) and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee—composed at first of nine, and later of twelve, members—was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial, and legislative efforts
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Carnac
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Carnac
Carnac
(Breton: Karnag) is a commune beside the Gulf of Morbihan
Morbihan
on the south coast of Brittany
Brittany
in the Morbihan
Morbihan
department in north-western France. Its inhabitants are called Carnacois in French
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